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Remaining Schedule

Remaining Schedule

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Remaining Schedule

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  1. Remaining Schedule • Office Hours: 6:30-9 p.m. Deans’ Suite • E-Mail Qs sent before 9 p.m. • To be Posted Today • Slides from Today (Probs RSTU) • Suggested Analysis Probs VWX • Exam Instruction Page • Any additional Qs re Book • Post-Exam -- Check Course Page for: • Memo w Correct Answers & Comments • Info on Picking Up Your Results

  2. TIMING AMBIGUITY To Andrew for life, then to Brian, but if Cheryl graduates from law school, then to Cheryl. If Cheryl graduates from law school during Andrew’s life estate, does she divest Andrew’s interest or just Brian’s?

  3. TIMING AMBIGUITY To Andrew for life, then to Brian, but if Cheryl graduates from law school, then to Cheryl. Common law presumption: If ambiguous, interest won’t divest life estate

  4. TIMING AMBIGUITY To Andrew for life, then to Brian, but if Cheryl graduates from law school, then to Cheryl. Now generally treated as a question of grantor’s intent.

  5. TIMING AMBIGUITY To Andrew for life, then to Brian, but if Cheryl graduates from law school, to Cheryl. To Andrew for life, then to Brian, but if Cheryl has graduated from law school, then to Cheryl.

  6. TIMING AMBIGUITY To Andrew for life, then to Brian, but if Cheryl graduates from law school, to Cheryl. To Andrew for life, then to Brian, but if Cheryl has graduated from law school, then to Cheryl. Verb Tenses suggest immediate for first; at end of life estate for second.

  7. TIMING AMBIGUITY To Andrew for life, then to Brian, but if Cheryl graduates from law school, then to Cheryl. Andrew is 16; Cheryl is 46.

  8. TIMING AMBIGUITY To Andrew for life, then to Brian, but if Cheryl graduates from law school, then to Cheryl. Andrew is 16; Cheryl is 46. Seems unlikely Cheryl will survive Andrew, so this suggests immediate divestment.

  9. TIMING AMBIGUITY To Andrew for life, then to Brian, but if Andrew graduates from law school, then to Cheryl. To Andrew for life, then to Brian, but if Brian graduates from law school, then to Cheryl.

  10. TIMING AMBIGUITY To Andrew for life, then to Brian, but if Andrew graduates from law school, then to Cheryl. To Andrew for life, then to Brian, but if Brian graduates from law school, then to Cheryl. No clear reason to punish Andrew for Brian’s life choices.

  11. DEFEASIBLE LIFE ESTATES:TERMINOLOGY: Book p.122 • To A for life, so long as she remains unmarried, then to B & her heirs. • Common Law Presumption: B takes both at end of life estate & if condition violated • A has Life Estate Determinable • B has Vested Remainder in Fee Simple Absolute (Executory Interest merges into Vested Remainder)

  12. DEFEASIBLE LIFE ESTATES:TERMINOLOGY: My Preference • To A for life, so long as she remains unmarried, then to B & her heirs. • When B takes is ambiguous • If B can cut off A, A has Life Estate on Exec. Lim. • Be aware that there need to be two future interests • One follows life estate • One occurs if condition violated

  13. DEFEASIBLE LIFE ESTATES:TERMINOLOGY: Book p.123-24 • To A for life, but if A marries, then to B & her heirs. • Common Law Presumption: B takes only if condition violated • A has Life Estate on Executory Limitation • B has Shifting Executory Interest • Grantor retains Reversion

  14. DEFEASIBLE LIFE ESTATES:TERMINOLOGY: My Preference • To A for life, but if A marries, then to B & her heirs. • When B takes is ambiguous (check circs) • If B only has contingent remainder: • A has life estate on condition subsequent • Grantor has both right of entry & reversion

  15. Vested Remainders Subject to Open: The Rule of Convenience

  16. The Rule of Convenience: Once Someone in the Class Can Take Possession, Nobody New Can Be Added to the Class.

  17. To Alex for Life, then to Ben’s Children & Their Heirs • Ben Has 2 Children, Christina & Drew • They have VR subject to open. • Alex dies • 2 years later, Ben has new child, Ed. • Class closes at A’s death • C & D share fee simple absolute • E has nothing

  18. To Alex for Life, then to Ben’s Children who turn 21 & Their Heirs • Ben Has 3 Children, Christina (24),Drew (22), Ed (16) • C & D have VR subject to open • Alex dies, Ed is 18 • 2 years later, Ben has new child, Forton • No new class members after A’s death , but E already in existence • C & D get fee simple subject to partial divestment • E has executory interest; gets f.s, if turns 21 • F gets nothing

  19. (R) Renee conveys “to Stacy for life, then to my heirs, but should Stacy marry before she turns 35, to Marni.”: Ambiguities? • R alive or dead? • M’s interest intended to cut off life estate? • Condition void? • Today or “At Common Law”?

  20. (R) AMBIGUITIES • R alive or dead? • M’s interest intended to cut off life estate? • Condition void? • Today or “At Common Law”?

  21. (R) Renee conveys “to Stacy for life, then to my heirs, but should Stacy marry before she turns 35, to Marni.” • R alive, “to my heirs” = contingent remainder • R dead, “To my heirs” = vested remainder subject to divestment.

  22. (R) AMBIGUITIES • R alive or dead? • M’s interest intended to cut off life estate? • Condition void? • Today or “At Common Law”?

  23. (R) Renee conveys “to Stacy for life, then to my heirs, but should Stacy marry before she turns 35, to Marni.” • M’s interest cut off life estate? • punishes S for early marriage • discourages fortune hunters • maybe concern w Stacy support for Marni • no “then to Marni” • BUT: could have placed right after life estate • Could check for other facts

  24. (R) AMBIGUITIES • R alive or dead? • M’s interest intended to cut off life estate? • Condition void? • Today or “At Common Law”?

  25. (R) Renee conveys “to Stacy for life, then to my heirs, but should Stacy marry before she turns 35, to Marni.” • Partial Restraint on Marriage • Probably OK if only effects remainder (no harm to S) • Check S’s age • Not much effect if S is 33 • Bigger deal if S is 17 • If void, pencil out interest to M

  26. (R) AMBIGUITIES • R alive or dead? • M’s interest intended to cut off life estate? • Condition void? • Today or “At Common Law”?

  27. (R) Renee conveys “to Stacy for life, then to my heirs, but should Stacy marry before she turns 35, to Marni.” • At Common Law: M’s interest presumed to be in Life Estate • Today: M’s interest presumed to be in fee

  28. (R) Renee conveys “to Stacy for life, then to my heirs, but should Stacy marry before she turns 35, to Marni.” • Example: Condition void, Renee alive: • S: Life Estate • R’s Heirs: Contingent Remainder • R: Reversion • M: Nothing

  29. (R) Renee conveys “to Stacy for life, then to my heirs, but should Stacy marry before she turns 35, to Marni.” • Example: Condition valid, cuts off life estate, Renee dead, today: • S: Life Estate on Executory Limitation • R’s Heirs: Vested Remainder in f.s. subj to divestment • M: Shifting Executory Interest (in f.s.)

  30. (S) Xaviera “to Betsy if it continues to be used as a house of prostitution, but if not, my heirs can take it.” Xaviera died, survived by no children or spouse, but by her mother, Yvonne. Xaviera’s will gave all property to Phil. Betsy later closed the existing brothel and replaced it with an ad agency.

  31. (S) Xaviera “to B if it continues to be used as a house of prostitution, but if not, my heirs can take it.” Ambiguities? • Condition Valid/Effect of Invalidity • Heirs take automatically v. must act • Who is “heir”? • Ad agency violate grant?

  32. (S) Ambiguities? • Condition Valid/Effect of Invalidity? • Heirs take automatically v. must act • Who is “heir”? • Ad agency violate grant?

  33. (S) Xaviera “to B if it continues to be used as a house of prostitution, but if not, my heirs can take it.” • Condition Valid/Effect of Invalidity • Depends on jurisdiction (Nevada) • If illegal, pencil out condition  “To Betsy” • Must be “Today” b/c of ad agency, so B would have fee simple absolute • If valid, keep going

  34. (S) Ambiguities? • Condition Valid/Effect of Invalidity? • Heirs take automatically v. must act • Who is “heir”? • Ad agency violate grant?

  35. (S) Xaviera “to B if it continues to be used as a house of prostitution, but if not, my heirs can take it.” automatically v. must act

  36. (S) Xaviera “to B if it continues to be used as a house of prostitution, but if not, my heirs can take it.” automatically v. must act • “continues” sounds like time  autom. • two part grant  must act • “my heirs can take it” sounds like choice  must act • Presumption in favor of FSCS form  must act

  37. (S) Ambiguities? • Condition Valid/Effect of Invalidity? • Heirs take automatically v. must act • Who is “heir”? • Ad agency violate grant?

  38. (S) Who is Heir? • Xaviera died, survived by no children or spouse, but by her mother, Yvonne. Xaviera’s will gave all property to Phil.

  39. (S) Who is Heir? • Xaviera died, survived by no children or spouse, but by her mother, Yvonne. Xaviera’s will gave all property to Phil. Yvonne! (No Ambiguity)

  40. (S) Ambiguities? • Condition Valid/Effect of Invalidity? • Heirs take automatically v. must act • Who is “heir”? • Ad agency violate grant? 

  41. (S) Xaviera “to B if it continues to be used as a house of prostitution, but if not, my heirs can take it.” Valid,Violated • Autom.: Yvonne has Fee Simple Absolute • Must Act: Yvonne still has executory interest; must exercise (B retains FS on Exec. Limit.)

  42. (T) A in will:“to B for life, then to D if she turns 21 for life, then to B’s heirs. I leave the rest of my property to B.” • Beatrice?

  43. (T) A in will:“to B for life, then to D if she turns 21 for life, then to B’s heirs. I leave the rest of my property to B.” • Beatrice = Life Estate • Dolly?

  44. (T) A in will:“to B for life, then to D if she turns 21 for life, then to B’s heirs. I leave the rest of my property to B.” • Beatrice = Life Estate • Dolly = Contingent Remainder in L.E. • B’s Heirs?

  45. (T) A in will:“to B for life, then to D if she turns 21 for life, then to B’s heirs. I leave the rest of my property to B.” • Beatrice = Life Estate • Dolly = Contingent Remainder in L.E. • B’s Heirs = Contingent Remainder in f.s. (unascertained) • Other?

  46. (T) A in will:“to B for life, then to D if she turns 21 for life, then to B’s heirs. I leave the rest of my property to B.” • Beatrice = Life Estate • Dolly = Contingent Remainder in L.E. • B’s Heirs = Contingent Rem. in f.s. • Reversion in A; passes to B in will.

  47. (T) A in will:“to B for life, then to D if she turns 21 for life, then to B’s heirs. [Residue] to B.”B Dies; D is 18 • What now? Check for Destructability Doctrine

  48. (T) A in will:“to B for life, then to D if she turns 21 for life, then to B’s heirs. [Residue] to B.”B Dies; D is 18 • If Destructability Doctrine Applies: • D’s Remainder is Destroyed • Remainder in B’s Heirs Becomes Fee Simple Absolute in B’s Heirs (D + G + H)

  49. (T) A in will:“to B for life, then to D if she turns 21 for life, then to B’s heirs. [Residue] to B.”B Dies; D is 18 • If Destructability Doctrine Doesn’t Apply: • Reversion becomes FS on Exec. Limitation • Held by B; Passes through will to IRC • D has springing exec interest • Remainder in B’s Heirs stays & waits for end of D’s life

  50. (U) Rob: “to C for his support and benefit so long as the property is not used for commercial purposes, then to my nephew J and his heirs if J reaches the age of 35.” C on land writes novels & does deals on phone.C dies; J is not 35(VERY HARD!!)