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Organic Chemistry
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  1. Organic Chemistry William H. Brown & Christopher S. Foote

  2. Carbohydrates Chapter 24 Chapter 25

  3. Carbohydrates • Carbohydrate: a polyhydroxyaldehyde or polyhydroxyketone, or a substance that gives these compounds on hydrolysis • Monosaccharide:a carbohydrate that cannot be hydrolyzed to a simpler carbohydrate • they have the general formula CnH2nOn, where n varies from 3 to 8 • aldose: a monosaccharide containing an aldehyde group • ketose: a monosaccharide containing a ketone group

  4. Monosaccharides • Monosaccharides are classified by their number of carbon atoms

  5. Monosaccharides • There are only two trioses • often aldo- and keto- are omitted and these compounds are referred to simply as trioses; although this designation does not tell the nature of the carbonyl group, it at least tells the number of carbons

  6. Monosaccharides • Glyceraldehyde contains a stereocenter and exists as a pair of enantiomers

  7. Fischer Projections • Fischer projection:a two dimensional representation for showing the configuration of tetrahedral stereocenters • horizontal lines represent bonds projecting forward • vertical lines represent bonds projecting to the rear

  8. D,L Monosaccharides • In 1891, Emil Fischer made the arbitrary assignments of D- and L- to the enantiomers of glyceraldehyde

  9. D,L Monosaccharides • According to the conventions proposed by Fischer • D-monosaccharide: a monosaccharide that, when written as a Fischer projection, has the -OH on its penultimate carbon on the right • L-monosaccharide: a monosaccharide that, when written as a Fischer projection, has the -OH on its penultimate carbon on the left

  10. D,L Monosaccharides • Here are the two most common D-aldotetroses and the two most common D-aldopentoses

  11. D,L Monosaccharides • And the three common D-aldohexoses

  12. Physical Properties • Monosaccharides are colorless crystalline solids, very soluble in water, but only slightly soluble in ethanol • sweetness relative to sucrose:

  13. Cyclic Structure • Monosaccharides have hydroxyl and carbonyl groups in the same molecule and exist almost entirely as five- and six-membered cyclic hemiacetals • anomeric carbon: the new stereocenter resulting from cyclic hemiacetal formation • anomers:carbohydrates that differ in configuration at their anomeric carbons

  14. Haworth Projections • Haworth projections • five- and six-membered hemiacetals are represented as planar pentagons or hexagons, as the case may be, viewed through the edge • most commonly written with the anomeric carbon on the right and the hemiacetal oxygen to the back right • the designation - means that -OH on the anomeric carbon is cis to the terminal -CH2OH; - means that it is trans

  15. Haworth Projections

  16. Haworth Projections • six-membered hemiacetal rings are shown by the infix -pyran- • five-membered hemiacetal rings are shown by the infix -furan-

  17. Conformational Formulas • five-membered rings are so close to being planar that Haworth projections are adequate to represent furanoses

  18. Conformational Formulas • for pyranoses, the six-membered ring is more accurately represented as a strain-free chair conformation

  19. Conformational Formulas • if you compare the orientations of groups on carbons 1-5 in the Haworth and chair projections of -D-glucopyranose, you will see that in each case they are up-down-up-down-up respectively

  20. Mutarotation • Mutarotation: the change in specific rotation that occurs when an  or  form of a carbohydrate is converted to an equilibrium mixture of the two

  21. Mutarotation

  22. Formation of Glycosides • Glycoside:a carbohydrate in which the -OH of the anomeric carbon is replaced by -OR • methyl -D-glucopyranoside (methyl -D-glucoside)

  23. Glycosides • Glycosidic bond:the bond from the anomeric carbon of the glycoside to an -OR group • Glycosides are named by listing the name of the alkyl or aryl group attached to oxygen followed by the name of the carbohydrate with the ending -e replaced by -ide • methyl -D-glucopyranoside • methyl -D-ribofuranoside

  24. N-Glycosides • The anomeric carbon of a cyclic hemiacetal also undergoes reaction with the N-H group of an amine to form an N-glycoside • N-glycosides of the following purine and pyrimidine bases are structural units of nucleic acids

  25. N-Glycosides

  26. Reduction to Alditols • The carbonyl group of a monosaccharide can be reduced to an hydroxyl group by a variety of reducing agents, including NaBH4 and H2/M

  27. Oxidation to Aldonic Acids • The -CHO group can be oxidized to -COOH

  28. Oxidation to Aldonic Acids • among the mild oxidizing agents used for this purpose is Tollens’ solution; if the test is done properly, silver metal precipitates as a silver mirror

  29. Oxidation to Aldonic Acids • 2-Ketoses are also oxidized by these reagents • under the conditions of the oxidation, 2-ketoses equilibrate with isomeric aldoses

  30. Oxidation to Uronic Acids • Enzyme-catalyzed oxidation of the terminal -OH group gives a -COOH group

  31. Oxidation by HIO4 • Periodic acid cleaves the C-C bond of a glycol

  32. Oxidation by HIO4 • it also cleaves -hydroxyaldehydes

  33. Oxidation by HIO4 • and -hydroxyketones

  34. Oxidation by HIO4 • Oxidation of methyl -D-glucoside consumes 2 moles of HIO4 and produces 1 mole of formic acid, which indicates 3 adjacent C-OH groups

  35. Oxidation by HIO4 • this is evidence that methyl -D-glucoside is a pyranoside

  36. Glucose Assay • The analytical procedure most often performed in the clinical chemistry laboratory is the determination of glucose in blood, urine, or other biological fluid • this need stems from the high incidence of diabetes in the population

  37. Glucose Assay • The glucose oxidase method is completely specific for D-glucose

  38. Glucose Assay • the enzyme glucose oxidase is specific for -D-glucose • molecular oxygen, O2, used in this reaction is reduced to hydrogen peroxide H2O2 • the concentration of H2O2 is determined experimentally, and is proportional to the concentration of glucose in the sample • in one procedure, hydrogen peroxide is used to oxidize o-toluidine to a colored product, whose concentration is determined spectrophotometrically

  39. Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C) • L-Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is synthesized both biochemically and industrially from D-glucose

  40. Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C) • L-Ascorbic acid is very easily oxidized to L-dehydroascorbic acid. Both are physiologically active and are found in most body fluids

  41. Maltose • From malt, the juice of sprouted barley and other cereal grains

  42. Lactose • The principle sugar present in milk • about 5 - 8% in human milk, 4 - 5% in cow’s milk

  43. Sucrose • Table sugar, obtained from the juice of sugar cane and sugar beet

  44. Starch • Starch is used for energy storage in plants • it can be separated into two fractions; amylose and amylopectin; each on complete hydrolysis gives only D-glucose • amylose is composed of continuous, unbranched chains of up to 4000 D-glucose units joined by -1,4-glycoside bonds • amylopectin is a highly branched polymer of D-glucose. Chains consist of 24-30 units of D-glucose joined by -1,4-glycoside bonds and branches created by -1,6-glycoside bonds

  45. Glycogen • Glycogen is the reserve carbohydrate for animals • like amylopectin, glycogen is a nonlinear polymer of D-glucose units joined by -1,4- and -1,6-glycoside bonds bonds • the total amount of glycogen in the body of a well-nourished adult is about 350 g (about 3/4 of a pound) divided almost equally between liver and muscle

  46. Cellulose • Cellulose is a linear polymer of D-glucose units joined by -1,4-glycoside bonds • it has an average molecular weight of 400,000 g/mol, corresponding to approximately 2800 D-glucose units per molecule • both rayon and acetate rayon are made from chemically modified cellulose

  47. Acidic Polysaccharides • Hyaluronic acid: an acidic polysaccharide present in connective tissue, such as synovial fluid and vitreous humor

  48. Acidic Polysaccharides • Heparin • its best understood function is as an anticoagulant

  49. Prob 25.11 Which are D-monosaccharides? Which are L-monosaccharides?

  50. Prob 25.20 Convert each Haworth projection to an open-chain form and then to a Fischer projection. Name each monosaccharide.