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All change for WCAG 2.0. WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT THE NEW ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES. Patrick H. Lauke / Manchester Digital Development Agency / 24 March 2009. About me. Web Editor for University of Salford Web Standards Project ( WaSP ) Author and occasional .net magazine contributor

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All change for wcag 2 0 l.jpg
All change for WCAG 2.0

WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT THE NEW ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES

Patrick H. Lauke / Manchester Digital Development Agency / 24 March 2009


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About me...

Web Editor for University of Salford

Web Standards Project (WaSP)

Author and occasional .net magazine contributor

NOT an expert?


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Outline

Background on WCAG 1.0

The painful birth of WCAG 2.0

Overview of the new guidelines

Next steps for WCAG 1.0 veterans


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Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 1.0

www.w3.org/TR/WCAG10

W3C recommendation 5 May 1999

14 guidelines

75 checkpoints


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WCAG 1.0 – problems

HTML-centric checkpoints, despite separate techniques document http://www.w3.org/TR/WAI-WEBCONTENT-TECHS/

“until user agents” clauses

Forbids JavaScript and any non-W3C technologies

Vague checkpoints


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WCAG 2.0 – early attempts

Work began soon after release of WCAG 1.0

Many iterations, largely under radar of web devs

Original “Last Call” April 2006


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To Hell with WCAG 2.0

Joe Clark's vitriolic style

A List Apart, 23 May 2006 http://www.alistapart.com/articles/tohellwithwcag2

Main points of concern:

Overall size of combined guidelines

Inscrutable language

Baseline concept

Omission of markup validation / standards


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To Hell with WCAG 2.0

Generated huge interest from web devs

Joe Clark started WCAG Samurai project to create errata for WCAG 1.0

W3C demoted WCAG 2.0 from Last Call back to Public Working Draft


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WCAG 2.0 back on track

Joe Clark's leaving speech at @media2007 – confident that WCAG 2.0 heading in right direction

Historical aside: my take on amended WCAG 2.0http://www.webstandards.org/2007/06/11/review-wcag2-may2007-working-draft/

Nonetheless released WCAG Samurai Erratahttp://wcagsamurai.org/


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Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.0

www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20

W3C recommendation 11 December 2008



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WCAG 2.0 suite of documents

Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.0 [normative]

How to Meet WCAG 2.0 [informative]

Understanding WCAG 2.0 [informative]

Techniques for WCAG 2.0 [informative]

http://www.w3.org/WAI/intro/wcag20


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Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.0

4 general principles

12 guidelines

61 success criteria


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WCAG 2.0 principles

A website should be...

Perceivable

Operable

Usable

Robust


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WCAG 2.0 improvements

Principles, guidelines and success criteria are technology-agnostic


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WCAG 1.0 examples

“Guideline 5. Create tables that transform gracefully”

“5.3 Do not use tables for layout unless the table makes sense when linearized.”

“Note. Once user agents support style sheet positioning, tables should not be used for layout.”

So what happens with CSS positioning that breaks linear flow?


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WCAG 2.0 examples

“Guideline 1.3 Adaptable: Create content that can be presented in different ways (for example simpler layout) without losing information or structure.”

“1.3.2 Meaningful Sequence: When the sequence in which content is presented affects its meaning, a correct reading sequence can be programmatically determined.”


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WCAG 2.0 improvements

WCAG 1.0 “Guideline 11. Use W3C technologies and guidelines”

“Where it is not possible to use a W3C technology, or doing so results in material that does not transform gracefully, provide an alternative version of the content that is accessible.”

WCAG 2.0 can be applied to W3C and non-W3C technologies (as long as they're accessibility-supported)


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WCAG 2.0 improvements

Accessibility-supported technologies

supported by users' assistive technology

technology must have accessibility-supported user agents that are available to users


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WCAG 2.0 accessibility-supported

You can use PDF, Flash, even JavaScript

JavaScript and WAI-ARIA http://www.w3.org/TR/wai-aria/

Even if a technology isn't fully accessibility-supported, as long as you use the supported bits

Worst case provide fallback that is supported


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WCAG 2.0 improvements

Removes all “until user agents...” clauses


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WCAG 1.0 example

“Guideline 10. Use interim solutions.”

“10.4 Until user agents handle empty controls correctly, include default, place-holding characters in edit boxes and text areas.”


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WCAG 2.0 improvements

Each success criterion is more easily testable

Success criteria give clearer guidance than WCAG 1.0 checkpoints


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WCAG 1.0 example

“Guideline 2. Don't rely on color alone.”

“2.2 Ensure that foreground and background color combinations provide sufficient contrast when viewed by someone having color deficits or when viewed on a black and white screen.”

What exactly is “sufficient”?


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WCAG 2.0 example

“Guideline 1.4 Distinguishable: Make it easier for users to see and hear content including separating foreground from background.”

AA “1.4.3 Contrast (Minimum): The visual presentation of text and images of text has a contrast ratio of at least 4.5:1”

“Large Text: Large-scale text and images of large-scale text have a contrast ratio of at least 3:1”

AAA “1.4.6 Contrast (Enhanced): The visual presentation of text and images of text has a contrast ratio of at least 7:1”

“Large Text: Large-scale text and images of large-scale text have a contrast ratio of at least 4.5:1”


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WCAG 2.0 improvements

As a result of clearer, testable SCs some things are allowed that previously weren't


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WCAG 1.0 example

“Guideline 7. Ensure user control of time-sensitive content changes.”

“7.1 Until user agents allow users to control flickering, avoid causing the screen to flicker.”

“7.2 Until user agents allow users to control blinking, avoid causing content to blink[...]”


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WCAG 2.0 example

“Guideline 2.3 Seizures: Do not design content in a way that is known to cause seizures”

“2.3.1 Three Flashes or Below Threshold: Web pages do not contain anything that flashes more than three times in any one second period, or the flash is below the general flash and red flash thresholds.”


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WCAG 2.0 improvements

Success criteria focus on the outcomes, not how they're achieved


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WCAG 1.0 example

“Guideline 9. Design for device-independence.”

“9.5 Provide keyboard shortcuts to important links (including those in client-side image maps), form controls, and groups of form controls.”

“For example, in HTML, specify shortcuts via the "accesskey" attribute.”


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WCAG 2.0 example

“Guideline 2.1 Keyboard Accessible: Make all functionality available from a keyboard.“

“2.1.1 Keyboard: All functionality of the content is operable through a keyboard interface [...]”


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WCAG 2.0 improvements

Talks about mechanisms

“process or technique for achieving a result”


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WCAG 2.0 mechanism example

“Guideline 2.4 Navigable: Provide ways to help users navigate, find content, and determine where they are.”

“2.4.1 Bypass Blocks: A mechanism is available to bypass blocks of content that are repeated on multiple Web pages.”

Does this mandate skip links?


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WCAG 2.0 mechanism example

Looking at “How to meet WCAG 2.0”, skip links only one of a few techniques mentioned

Sufficient Techniques for 2.4.1 - Bypass Blocks:

Creating links to skip blocks of repeated material

Grouping blocks of repeated material in a way that can be skipped

Advisory Techniques for 2.4.1 - Bypass Blocks

[…]

C6: Positioning content based on structural markup


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WCAG 2.0 techniques

Techniques cover general technologies: HTML, CSS, JavaScript, WAI-ARIA

Sufficient and advisory techniques

Techniques are informative, not normative

List of techniques is not exhaustive – invent your own as long as success criteria are fulfilled


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WCAG 2.0 conformance

WCAG 1.0 had duality of priority 1,2,3 that mapped to levels A, AA, AAA

WCAG 2.0 just uses A, AA, AAA model for both SCs and conformance levels


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WCAG 2.0 conformance

Applies to full pages

Complete processes

Only accessibility-supported techs are relied on

Non-interference (when adding non-accessibility-supported technologies)

You can conform without a conformance claim


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WCAG 2.0 partial conformance

3rd party content (UGC, feeds, etc)

Use of languages/technologies without accessibility-support (future-proofing?)


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Transition from WCAG 1.0 to WCAG 2.0

Needs of users with disabilities hasn't changed

Technology that they use has

If your site accessible under WCAG 1.0, shouldn't be too far off WCAG 2.0


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Transition from WCAG 1.0 to WCAG 2.0

How WCAG 1.0 differs from WCAG 2.0 http://www.w3.org/WAI/WCAG20/from10/diff.php

Comparison WCAG 1.0 checkpoints to WCAG 2.0 http://www.w3.org/WAI/WCAG20/from10/comparison/

How to update your site from WCAG 1.0 to 2.0 http://www.w3.org/WAI/WCAG20/from10/websites.html


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Transition from WCAG 1.0 to WCAG 2.0

Evaluate your site based on WCAG 2.0 SCs

Many 1.0 checkpoints map to 2.0 SCs

Are there 1.0 requirements that have been lifted?

Test more specific 2.0 SCs


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Getting started with WCAG 2.0

WebAIM's unofficial checklist http://webaim.org/standards/wcag/checklist


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Getting started with WCAG 2.0

For a “one-stop shop” overview, customisable WCAG 2.0 quick referencehttp://www.w3.org/WAI/WCAG20/quickref/


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Recap on WCAG 2.0

Technology-agnostic – applicable to more present and future technologies

Clearly testable Success Criteria

Focussed on outcome for users, not techniques

Removes outdated requirements from 1.0

Overall allows authors more freedom


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Thanks

Patrick H. Lauke

http://www.splintered.co.uk