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Input/Output. 5.1 Principles of I/O hardware 5.2 Principles of I/O software 5.3 I/O software layers 5.4 Disks 5.5 Clocks 5.6 Character-oriented terminals 5.7 Graphical user interfaces 5.8 Network terminals 5.9 Power management. Chapter 5. I/O Device.

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input output

Input/Output

5.1 Principles of I/O hardware

5.2 Principles of I/O software

5.3 I/O software layers

5.4 Disks

5.5 Clocks

5.6 Character-oriented terminals

5.7 Graphical user interfaces

5.8 Network terminals

5.9 Power management

Chapter 5

i o device
I/O Device
  • I/O devices can be divided into two categories:
    • A block devices is one that stores information in fixed-size blocks.
    • A character device delivers or accepts a stream of characters, without regard to any block structure.
  • Some devices do not fit in: clocks, memory-mapped screens.
principles of i o hardware
Principles of I/O Hardware

Some typical device, network, and data base rates

device controllers
Device Controllers
  • I/O devices have components:
    • mechanical component
    • electronic component
  • The electronic component is the devicecontroller or adapter.
    • may be able to handle multiple devices
    • On PCs, it often takes the form of a printed circuit card that can be inserted into an expansion slot.
  • Controller's tasks
    • convert serial bit stream to block of bytes
    • perform error correction as necessary
    • make available to main memory
memory mapped i o
Memory-Mapped I/O
  • Each controller ha a few registers that are used for communicating with the CPU. The operating system can command the device by writing into these registers and learn the device’s state by reading from these registers.
  • Many devices have a data buffer that the operating system can read and write. Two approaches exist:
    • Each control register is assigned an I/O port number.
    • All the control registers are mapped into the memory space. This is called memory-mapped I/O.
memory mapped i o1
Memory-Mapped I/O
  • Separate I/O and memory space
  • Memory-mapped I/O – PDP-11
  • Hybrid - Pentium
memory mapped i o2
Memory-Mapped I/O
  • Advantages of memory-mapped I/O:
    • An I/O device driver can be written entirely in C
    • No special protection mechanism is needed to keep user process from performing I/O.
    • Every instruction that can reference memory can also reference control register.
  • Disadvantages of memory-mapped I/O:
    • Caching a device control register would be disastrous (not reflect current device status change).
    • All memory modules and all I/O devices must examine all memory references.
memory mapped i o3
Memory-Mapped I/O

(a) A single-bus architecture

(b) A dual-bus memory architecture

direct memory access dma
Direct Memory Access (DMA)
  • Direct Memory Access (DMA) is a capability provided by some computer bus architectures that allows data to be sent directly from an attached device (such as a disk drive) to the memory on the computer's motherboard.
  • DMA operations:
    • CPU program the DMA controller
    • DMA requests transfer to memory
    • Data transferred
    • The disk controller sends an acknowledgement
direct memory access dma1
Direct Memory Access (DMA)

Operation of a DMA transfer

interrupts revisited
Interrupts Revisited
  • The interrupt vector is a table holding numbers on the address lines specifying devices.
  • Precise interrupt:
    • The PC (Program Counter) is saved in a known place.
    • All instructions before the one pointed to by the PC have fully executed.
    • No instruction beyond the one pointed to by the PC has been executed.
    • The execution state of the instruction pointed to by the PC is known.
interrupts revisited1
Interrupts Revisited

How interrupts happens. Connections between devices and interrupt controller actually use interrupt lines on the bus rather than dedicated wires

principles of i o software goals of i o software
Principles of I/O SoftwareGoals of I/O Software
  • Device independence
    • programs can access any I/O device
    • without specifying device in advance
      • (floppy, hard drive, or CD-ROM)
  • Uniform naming
    • name of a file or device a string or an integer
    • not depending on which machine
  • Error handling
    • handle as close to the hardware as possible
goals of i o software
Goals of I/O Software
  • Synchronous vs. asynchronous transfers
    • blocking transfers vs. interrupt-driven
    • Most physical I/O is interrupt-driven.
  • Buffering
    • data coming off a device cannot be stored in final destination
  • Sharable vs. dedicated devices
    • disks are sharable
    • tape drives would not be
i o execution
I/O Execution
  • There are three ways that I/O are performed:
    • Programmed I/O
      • Disadvantage: tying up the CPU full time until all the I/O is done.
    • Interrupt-driven I/O
      • Interrupts might waste time.
    • I/O using DMA
      • Slower than CPU
programmed i o
Programmed I/O
  • Steps in printing a string
    • String in the user buffer
    • A System call to transfer the string to the kernel.
    • String printed
programmed i o1
Programmed I/O

Writing a string to the printer using programmed I/O

interrupt driven i o
Interrupt-Driven I/O
  • Writing a string to the printer using interrupt-driven I/O
    • Code executed when print system call is made
    • Interrupt service procedure
i o using dma
I/O Using DMA
  • Printing a string using DMA
    • code executed when the print system call is made
    • interrupt service procedure
i o software layers
I/O Software Layers
  • I/O Software in four layers:
    • Interrupt handlers
    • Device drivers
    • Device-independent operating system software
    • User-level I/O software
i o software layers1
I/O Software Layers

Layers of the I/O Software System

interrupt handlers
Interrupt Handlers
  • Interrupt handlers are best hidden
    • have driver starting an I/O operation block until interrupt notifies of completion
  • Interrupt procedure does its task
    • then unblocks driver that started it
interrupt handlers1
Interrupt Handlers
  • Steps must be performed in software after interrupt completed
    • Save registers not already saved by interrupt hardware
    • Set up context for interrupt service procedure
    • Set up stack for interrupt service procedure
    • Acknowledge interrupt controller, reenable interrupts
    • Copy registers from where saved
    • Run service procedure
    • Set up MMU context for process to run next
    • Load new process' registers
    • Start running the new process
device driver
Device Driver
  • The device driver is the device-specific code for controlling the I/O device attached to a computer.
  • Current operating systems expect drivers to fun in the kernel.
  • Operating systems usually classify drivers into:
    • Block devices
    • Character devices
device drivers
Device Drivers
  • Logical position of device drivers is shown here
  • Communications between drivers and device controllers goes over the bus
device independent i o software
Device-Independent I/O Software

Functions of the device-independent I/O software

device independent i o software1
Device-Independent I/O Software

(a) Without a standard driver interface – a lot of new programming effort

(b) With a standard driver interface

buffering
Buffering
  • Buffering is a widely-used technique. If data get buffered too many times, performance suffers.
  • Classes of I/O errors:
    • Programming errors
    • Actual I/O errors
  • Some I/O software can be linked with user programs.
    • Spooling is a way of dealing with dedicated I/O devices in a multiprogramming system.
    • A spooling directory is used for storing the spooling jobs.
device independent i o software2
Device-Independent I/O Software

(a) Unbuffered input

(b) Buffering in user space

(c) Buffering in the kernel followed by copying to user space

(d) Double buffering in the kernel

device independent i o software3
Device-Independent I/O Software

Networking may involve many copies

user space i o software
User-Space I/O Software

Layers of the I/O system and the main functions of each layer

disks
Disks
  • Disks come in a variety of types:
    • Magnetic disks (hard disks and floppy disks)
    • Arrays of disks
    • Optical disks
      • CD-ROMs
      • CD-Recordables
      • CD-Rewritables
      • DVD
disks disk hardware
DisksDisk Hardware

Disk parameters for the original IBM PC floppy disk and a Western Digital WD 18300 hard disk

disk hardware
Disk Hardware
  • Physical geometry of a disk with two zones
  • A possible virtual geometry for this disk
disk hardware1
Disk Hardware
  • Raid levels 0 through 2
  • Backup and parity drives are shaded
disk hardware2
Disk Hardware
  • Raid levels 3 through 5
  • Backup and parity drives are shaded
disk hardware3
Disk Hardware

Recording structure of a CD or CD-ROM

disk hardware4
Disk Hardware

Logical data layout on a CD-ROM

disk hardware5
Disk Hardware
  • Cross section of a CD-R disk and laser
    • not to scale
  • Silver CD-ROM has similar structure
    • without dye layer
    • with pitted aluminum layer instead of gold
disk hardware6
Disk Hardware

A double sided, dual layer DVD disk

disk formatting
Disk Formatting

A disk sector

disk formatting1
Disk Formatting

An illustration of cylinder skew

disk formatting2
Disk Formatting
  • No interleaving
  • Single interleaving
  • Double interleaving
disk arm scheduling algorithms
Disk Arm Scheduling Algorithms
  • Time required to read or write a disk block determined by 3 factors
    • Seek time
    • Rotational delay
    • Actual transfer time
  • Seek time dominates
  • Error checking is done by controllers
disk arm scheduling algorithms1
Disk Arm Scheduling Algorithms

Pending

requests

Initial

position

Shortest Seek First (SSF) disk scheduling algorithm

disk arm scheduling algorithms2
Disk Arm Scheduling Algorithms

The elevator algorithm for scheduling disk requests

error handling
Error Handling
  • A disk track with a bad sector
  • Substituting a spare for the bad sector
  • Shifting all the sectors to bypass the bad one
stable storage
Stable Storage

Analysis of the influence of crashes on stable writes

clocks clock hardware
ClocksClock Hardware

A programmable clock

clock software 1
Clock Software (1)

Three ways to maintain the time of day

clock software 2
Clock Software (2)

Simulating multiple timers with a single clock

soft timers
Soft Timers
  • A second clock available for timer interrupts
    • specified by applications
    • no problems if interrupt frequency is low
  • Soft timers avoid interrupts
    • kernel checks for soft timer expiration before it exits to user mode
    • how well this works depends on rate of kernel entries
character oriented terminals rs 232 terminal hardware
Character Oriented TerminalsRS-232 Terminal Hardware
  • An RS-232 terminal communicates with computer 1 bit at a time
  • Called a serial line – bits go out in series, 1 bit at a time
  • Windows uses COM1 and COM2 ports, first to serial lines
  • Computer and terminal are completely independent
input software 1
Input Software (1)
  • Central buffer pool
  • Dedicated buffer for each terminal
input software 2
Input Software (2)

Characters handled specially in canonical mode

output software
Output Software

The ANSI escape sequences

  • accepted by terminal driver on output
  • ESC is ASCII character (0x1B)
  • n,m, and s are optional numeric parameters
display hardware 1
Display Hardware (1)

Memory-mapped displays

  • driver writes directly into display's video RAM

Parallel port

display hardware 2
Display Hardware (2)
  • A video RAM image
    • simple monochrome display
    • character mode
  • Corresponding screen
    • the xs are attribute bytes
input software
Input Software
  • Keyboard driver delivers a number
    • driver converts to characters
    • uses a ASCII table
  • Exceptions, adaptations needed for other languages
    • many OS provide for loadable keymaps or code pages
output software for windows 1
Output Software for Windows (1)

Sample window located at (200,100) on XGA display

output software for windows 2
Output Software for Windows (2)

Skeleton of a Windows main program (part 1)

output software for windows 3
Output Software for Windows (3)

Skeleton of a Windows main program (part 2)

output software for windows 4
Output Software for Windows (4)

An example rectangle drawn using Rectangle

output software for windows 5
Output Software for Windows (5)
  • Copying bitmaps using BitBlt.
    • before
    • after
output software for windows 6
Output Software for Windows (6)

Examples of character outlines at different point sizes

network terminals x windows 1
Network TerminalsX Windows (1)

Clients and servers in the M.I.T. X Window System

x windows 2
X Windows (2)

Skeleton of an X Windows application program

the slim network terminal 1
The SLIM Network Terminal (1)

The architecture of the SLIM terminal system

the slim network terminal 2
The SLIM Network Terminal (2)

Messages used in the SLIM protocol from the server to the terminals

power management 1
Power Management (1)

Power consumption of various parts of a laptop computer

power management 2
Power management (2)

The use of zones for backlighting the display

power management 3
Power Management (3)
  • Running at full clock speed
  • Cutting voltage by two
    • cuts clock speed by two,
    • cuts power by four
power management 4
Power Management (4)
  • Telling the programs to use less energy
    • may mean poorer user experience
  • Examples
    • change from color output to black and white
    • speech recognition reduces vocabulary
    • less resolution or detail in an image