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Meat Processing

Meat Processing

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Meat Processing

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  1. Meats Unit Meat Processing

  2. History Fresh Meat Processing Sausage Processing Meat Processing

  3. Meat Processing History

  4. Salting (curing)-Oldest known form of meat preservation • 3000 B.C. • Smoking-American Indians • Sausage • Babylonians-1500 B.C. History

  5. Middle Ages-Europe • Climate dictated variety • Columbus was looking for spices • Named after towns • Bologna, Italy • Frankfurt, Germany Sausage Continued

  6. Average U.S. citizen per year • Spends $188 on cured meats and sausages • Hot Dog Season (Memorial Day-Labor Day) • 7 billion hot dogs consumed in USA (23 per person) • 818 hot dogs per second Today

  7. Bacon Ham Canadian Bacon Corned Beef Dried Beef Jerky Cured & Smoked Products

  8. Fresh Meat Processing

  9. Fresh meat-cut and packaged • Ground Beef • 44% of U.S. beef consumption • Production Steps • Course Grinding • Blending • Fine Grinding • Patty forming Fresh Meat Processing

  10. Beef Products, Inc.-Dakota Dunes, SD • Raw Material: fatty beef trimmings (less than 5% visible lean) • Process • Heat to cattle body temperature (about 100˚F) • Centrifuge to separate fat, protein, and water • Add protein and water and then freeze Fast Food Meat Products

  11. Final Product: 95% lean beef Used in almost all McDonald’s and Burger King patties Fast Food Meat Processing

  12. Inject a solution to enhance tenderness and juiciness Especially helps to retain juiciness if over-cooked Enhanced with water Enhanced with water salt solutions “Enhanced” fresh Meats

  13. Meat Processing Sausage

  14. Fresh Sausage • Fresh meat – not cured • Must be refrigerated or frozen • Must be cooked thoroughly before eating • Examples: • Fresh pork sausage (patty, link, bulk) • Italian sausage • Bratwurst • Chorizo Sausage types

  15. Largest volume sausage type in the US • Ready-To-Eat • Usually cured and smoked • Examples • Frankfurters (wieners, hot dogs) • Smoked dinner sausages • Ring bologna Cooked Sausage

  16. Cured and fully-cooked • Cooked in pans, molds, or casings • Usually sliced at plant • Examples: • Bologna • Head Cheese • Pimento Loaf Luncheon meats

  17. Fermented sausage • Lower pH 4.3-5.0 • Preservation • Tangy Flavor • Examples: • Summer Sausage • Salami • Pepperoni Dry and Semi Dry Sausage

  18. Meat • Trimmings • Beef, Pork, Veal • 50-95% lean • Mechanically Separated Meat • Poultry Meat • Cheaper • Different labeling laws • Variety Meats • Hearts, tongues, livers • Must be on label Sausage and Cured Meat Ingredients

  19. Water • Dispersing agent for other ingredients • Moist juicy end product • Compensate for moisture loss during cooking • Reduce product cost Sausage and Cured Meat Ingredients

  20. Salt • Most important curing ingredient • Flavor • Preservation • Lowers water activity • Reduces bacterial growth • Protein extraction • Solubilizes myosin and actin • Creates Bind Sausage and Cured Meat Ingredients

  21. Sugar • Flavor • Counteracts the harshness of salt • Needed for acid formation in fermented sausage • Common sweeteners • Dextrose, sucrose, corn syrup solids, brown sugar, honey Sausage and cured Meat Ingredients

  22. Sodium Nitrate • Prevents botulism • Limits lipid oxidation • Flavor • Color-Pink color • Also used to treat chest pains and heart problems Sausage and cured Meat Ingredients

  23. 85% from vegetables 8% from saliva 5% from cured meats 2% from other sources Average Nitrate/Nitrite COnsumption

  24. Extenders and binders • Reduce cost • Affect texture and flavor • Examples • Non-fat dry milk • Cereal flours • Soy protein • Must be in product name • “Bologna, Soy Protein Added” Sausage and cured Meat Ingredients

  25. Spices and Flavorings • Seasoning –whole or ground aromatic vegetable substances • Flavorings –Extracts • Smoking • Flavor, aroma, color, preservation • Natural smoke or liquid smoke Sausage and cured Meat Ingredients

  26. Two types • Natural • Manufactured Sausage Casings

  27. Natural Casings • Commonly used for bratwurst, Italian sausage • Intestines, stomachs, and bladders of hogs, sheep, and cattle • Advantages –bite (snap) and image Sausage Casings

  28. Manufactured casings • Most common • Advantages –price, uniformity, versatility Sausage casings

  29. Commonly used for skinless hot dogs, dry sausages, and boneless hams Inedible- pealed off before eating Strong Permeable to smoke and moisture Used to make skinless products Cellulose

  30. Commonly used for bologna, braunschweiger Inedible Strongest Impermeable Poly (Plastic) casings

  31. Commonly used for breakfast links Edible but uniform Lower strength than cellulose Palatability depends on thickness Collagen Casings

  32. Select 3 products • Write out the name of the product and answer these questions • What types of meat were used? • What type of sweeteners were used? • What type of added flavorings were used? • What type of variety meats were used? • Is it cured? • What was used to cure it? Product Profile