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Chemistry 100(02) Fall 2012 . Instructor: Dr. Upali Siriwardane e-mail : [email protected] Office : CTH 311 Phone 257-4941 Office Hours : M,W, 8:00-9:00 & 11:00-12:00 a.m Tu,Th,F 9:00 - 10:00 a.m. Test Dates : October 1, 2012 (Test 1): Chapter 1 & 2

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slide1
Chemistry 100(02) Fall 2012

Instructor: Dr. Upali Siriwardane

e-mail: [email protected]

Office: CTH 311

Phone 257-4941

Office Hours: M,W, 8:00-9:00 & 11:00-12:00 a.m

Tu,Th,F 9:00 - 10:00 a.m.

Test Dates:

October 1,2012 (Test 1): Chapter 1 & 2

October 22, 2012 (Test 2): Chapter 3 & 4

November 14, 2012 (Test 3) Chapter 5 & 6

November 15, 2012 (Make-up test) comprehensive:

Chapters 1-6 9:30-10:45:15 AM, CTH 328

CHEM 100, Fall 2012 LA TECH

2-1

slide2
REQUIRED :

Textbook: Principles of Chemistry: A Molecular Approach,

2nd Edition-Nivaldo J. Tro - Pearson Prentice Hall and also

purchase the Mastering Chemistry

Group Homework, Slides and Exam review guides and

sample exam questions are available online:

http://moodle.latech.edu/ and follow the course information

links.

OPTIONAL :

Study Guide: Chemistry: A Molecular Approach, 2nd Edition-

Nivaldo J. Tro 2nd Edition

Student Solutions Manual: Chemistry: A Molecular

Approach, 2nd Edition-Nivaldo J. Tro 2nd

Text Book & Resources

CHEM 100, Fall 2012 LA TECH

2-2

slide3
Chapter 3. Molecules, Compounds, and Chemical

Equations

3.1 Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Water 78

3.2 Chemical Bonds 80

3.3 Representing Compounds: Chemical Formulas and Molecular Models.. 82

3.4 An Atomic-Level View of Elements and Compounds 84

3.5 Ionic Compounds: Formulas and Names 87

3.6 Molecular Compounds: Formulas and Names 93

3.7 Formula Mass and the Mole Concept for Compounds 97

3.8 Composition of Compounds 100

3.9 Determining a Chemical Formula from Experimental Data 105

3.10 Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations 110

3.11 Organic Compounds 114

CHEM 100, Fall 2012 LA TECH

2-3

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Chapter 3. KEY CONCEPTS
  • Writing Molecular and Empirical Formulas (3.3)
  • Classifying Substances as Atomic Elements, Molecular Elements, Molecular Compounds, or Ionic Compounds (3.4)
  • Writing Formulas for Ionic Compounds (3.5)
  • Naming Simple Ionic Compounds (3.5)
  • Naming Ionic Compounds Containing Polyatomic Ions (3.5)
  • Naming Molecular Compounds (3.6)
  • Naming Molecular Compounds (3.6)
  • Naming Acids (3.6)
  • Calculating Formula Mass (3.7)
  • Using Formula Mass to Count Molecules by Weighing (3.7)
  • Calculating Mass Percent Composition (3.8)
  • Using Mass Percent Composition
  • as a Conversion Factor (3.8)
  • Using Chemical Formulas as
  • Conversion Factors (3.8)
  • Obtaining an Empirical Formula
  • from Experimental Data (3.9)
  • Calculating a Molecular Formula
  • from an Empirical Formula and
  • Molar Mass (3.9)
  • Obtaining an Empirical Formula
  • from Combustion Analysis (3.9)
  • Balancing Chemical Equations
  • (3.10)

CHEM 100, Fall 2012 LA TECH

2-4

slide5
Intramol

ecular Chemical Bonding Types

onic:Complete transfer of 1

or more electrons

from one atom to another, usually between

a metal and a nonmetal element

Covalent: The sharing of val

ence electrons shared

between nonmetal elements

Metallic:The communal

sharing of electrons between

metals

*Note: Most molecular bonds are actually

somewhere in between covalent and ionic types.

CHEM 100, Fall 2012 LA TECH

2-5

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-•••■0411414.■•.-

prefix

name of

prefix 1st

element

lbase name of 2nd element + -ide

Example: P20, diphosphorus pentoxide

Metal forms more than one type of ion

name of cation (metal)

base name of anion (nonmetal) + -ide

Example: Cali calcium iodide

1- Oxyacids Contain oxygen

base name of oxyanion

+ -ic

—,04/

Example: H1PO4phosphoric acid

Binary acids Two-element

Example: FeCI Example• 1-1C1(aq) Example: H2SW•aq)

iron(in) chloride hydrochloric acid sulfurous acid

*Acids must be in aqueous solution.

CHEM 100, Fall 2012 LA TECH

2-6

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Types of Compounds

ar or Covalent Compounds:

B) Mo

lecul

non-metal + non-metal

nonmetal

oxide or

halides: SO2

Organic compounds: C3H8

CHEM 100, Fall 2012 LA TECH

2-7

slide8
MOLECULAR ACIDS*

NonmetalH and one or

414_ only more nonmetals

base name of oxyanion

+ -k

Example, II 3 PO4 phospliovi( acid

(xiimplc:1);,05

diphosphorus pentoxide

CHEM 100, Fall 2012 LA TECH

Example'. HiS03(aq) sulfurous acid

*Acids mug be in aqueous

base Dame of nonmetal

-ic

Example; HCI(ao) hydrochloric acid

2-8

slide9
CHEMICAL BONDS:

THE FORCE BETWEEN ATOMS

What Makes a Molecule?

Methane, CH4

2613 Pearson Educalwrt Inc

CHEM 100, Fall 2012 LA TECH 2-9

slide10
Molecular Compounds:

Nonmetal

Name the most “metallic” of the nonmetals first.

+ Nonmetal

Change the ending of the nonmetal to “IDE.”

  • Indicate the number of atoms of the nonmetal by Latin prefixes.
  • Mono, di, tri, tetra, penta, hexa, hepta, octa, nona, deca
  • Examples:
  • – P2O5: diphosphorous pentaoxide
  • – CO: carbon monoxide

CHEM 100, Fall 2012 LA TECH

2-10

slide11
For compounds composed of two non-metallic

e

ements, the more metallic element is listed first.

To designate the multiplicity of an el

ement, Greek

prefixes are used:

mono  1; di  2; tri  3; tetra  4; penta  5;

hexa  6; hepta  7; octa  8

Naming Binary

Molecu

lar-Coval

ent Compounds

CHEM 100, Fall 2012 LA TECH

2-11

slide12
1) H2O, Na3PO4, HCl, C2H6, NH3, KCl, CH4, NH4Cl, C6H12O6, Brass-

CuxZny, SO3, NaCl, CO2

Identify the types of compounds in the above list:

Molecular compound:

Ionic compound:

Alloy:

Organic:

Inorganic:

CHEM 100, Fall 2012 LA TECH

2-12

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H2O, Na3PO4, HCl, C2H6, NH3, KCl, CH4, NH4Cl, C6H12O6, Brass-

CuxZny, SO3, NaCl, CO2

2) Which of the above compounds have

Molecular formula:

Ionic formula:

Distinct empirical formula:

CHEM 100, Fall 2012 LA TECH

2-13

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3) Indicating the type and number of atoms in a

molecule of the covalent compound: C6H12O6.

C:

H:

O:

Molecular formula:

Empirical formula:

CHEM 100, Fall 2012 LA TECH

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slide15
Simple Binary M

olecul

ar Compounds

H2O water (common name)

NH3ammonia (common name)

N2O dinitrogen oxide (nitrous oxide)

NO nitrogen monoxide (nitric oxide)

NO2 nitrogen dioxide

N2O4 dinitrogen tetroxide

CO carbon monoxide

CS2 carbon disulfide

SO3 sulfur trioxide

CCl4 carbon tetrachloride

PCl5 phosphorus pentachlorid

e

2-15

SF6 sulfur hexafluoride

CHEM 100, Fall 2012 LA TECH

slide16
4) Give systematic names to following binary inorganic

molecular compounds

a) H2O: b) HCl: c) SF6:

d) BF3: e) N2O4: f) CCl4:

g) SO3: h) PCl3:

CHEM 100, Fall 2012 LA TECH

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slide17
alkanes – CnH2n+2E.g. C5H12 pentane

alkenes – CnH2nE.g. C2H4 ethene

alkynes – CnH2n-2E.g. C2H2 ethyne

alco

hols –

ROH

E.g C2H5OH

ethanol

Hyd

rocarbons and Alco

hols

where R refers to the hydrocarbon radical backbone

created by substituting an -OH functional group for

a

H atom in the hydrocarbon

2-17

CHEM 100, Fall 2012 LA TECH

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5) Give the common name of the following molecular

compounds

NH3:

CH3COOH:

C6H12O6:

C2H5OH:

CHEM 100, Fall 2012 LA TECH

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slide19
Acids
  • Types of acids
  • Binary acids
  • H+ and nonmetal anion

In aqueous solutions, acids contain

the H+ cation and

  • Oxyacids
  • H+ cation and polyatomic anion

anion.

2-19

CHEM 100, Fall 2012 LA TECH

slide20
Naming Acid

s

Formula starts with H

HClHyd

rochl

oric acid

HNO3Nitric acid

H2SO4Sulfuric acid

HClO3Chloric acid

2-20

H3BO3Boric acid

H3PO4Phosphoric acid

CHEM 100, Fall 2012 LA TECH

slide21
Names of acid

s and ions

HClO2 chlorous ClO2¯ chl

HClO3 chloric ClO3¯ chl

HClO4 perchloric ClO4¯ perchl

HNO3 nitric NO3 ¯ nitrate

CHEM 100, Fall 2012 LA TECH

HClO hypochlorous

HNO2 nitrous NO2 ¯ nitrite

ClO

¯

”hypochlorite

orate

orite

orate

2-21

slide22
formula ends with OH

Naming bases

NaOH

Ba(OH)2 barium hydroxid

KOH

sodium hydroxid

potassium hydroxid

e

e

e

2-22

Ca(OH)2 calcium hyd

NH4OH

roxide

ammonium hydroxid

e

CHEM 100, Fall 2012 LA TECH

slide23
6) Give the names of the following acids

CHEM 100, Fall 2012 LA TECH

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Types of Chemical Formula

Molecular

Shows ratio of atoms each element in the

: C2H6O

Condensed

Shows groups of atoms bonded together in the

formula.

E.g ethyl

alcohol: CH

3CH2OH

Structural

Shows bonding of important groups in the formu

E.g ethyl

a

cohol

:

a

2-24

compound.

E.g ethyl

alcohol

CHEM 100, Fall 2012 LA TECH

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2-25

Models of Ethanol

CHEM 100, Fall 2012 LA TECH

slide26
7) Given the structural formula of an organic compound,

write the for the following: CH3CHClCH2OH

molecular formula

condensed formula

structural formula

line formula

CHEM 100, Fall 2012 LA TECH

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slide27
2-27

Catenation

The formation of chains of atoms of the same

This key feature of carbon permits a vast

number of compounds to exist.

Four types of hydrocarbons

Alkanes (saturated): single C-C bonds

Alkenes (unsaturated): double C=C bond

Alkynes (unsaturated): triple bond

Aromatic (unsaturated): benzene rings

Hyd

e

ement.

rocarbons

CHEM 100, Fall 2012 LA TECH

slide28
Alkanes CnH2n+2

methane – CH4

ethane – C2H6

propane – C3H8

butane – C4H10

pentane – C5H12

hexane – C6H14

heptane – C7H16

octane – C8H18

nonane – C9H20

decane – C10H22

CHEM 100, Fall 2012 LA TECH

2-28

slide29
Base names of hydrocarbons

Prefix Carbons

Meth- 1

Eth- 2

Prop- 3

But- 4

Pent- 5

Hex- 6

Hept- 7

Oct- 8

- 9

Dec- 10

2-29

I see much

memorization in

your future!

Non

CHEM 100, Fall 2012 LA TECH

slide30
8) Name, molecular, condensed and line formula of straight

chain alkane (saturated hydrocarbons) or n-alkanes.

4 carbon n-alkane:

7 carbon n-alkane:

CHEM 100, Fall 2012 LA TECH

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slide31
What is an Isomer?

Compounds with the same number and type

of atoms but with different arrangements are

called constitutional isomers

Condensed formul

Mol

ecul

ar

FormulaC5H12

as.

CH3CH2CH2CH2CH3 pentane

CH3CH(CH3)CH2CH3 2-methylbutane

(CH3)4C 2,2-dimethylpropane

All are isomers of C5H12.

CHEM 100, Fall 2012 LA TECH

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slide32
Alkane Isomers is there a formula?

Molecular Number of Molecular Number of

Formula Isomers Formula Isomers

CH4 1

C2H6

C3H81

C4Hio 2

C51-112 3

C61-114 5

C71-116 9

C81-11 18

C9H20 C101122

Cl2H26 C 151132

C 201142 C 30H62 C40H82

35

75

355

4,347

366,319

4,111,846,763

62,491,178,805,831

CHEM 100, Fall 2012 LA TECH 2-32

slide33
9) Draw the structural formula of constitutional isomers of

butane with molecular formula C4H10.

n-butane: CH3CH2CH2CH3

isobutene: (CH3) 3CH

CHEM 100, Fall 2012 LA TECH

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slide34
2-34

Butane

Butane molecules are present

in the liquid and gaseous

states in the lighter

CHEM 100, Fall 2012 LA TECH

slide35
Determine empirical formulas for the following:

1. An ionic compound that has

two aluminum ions for every

three oxide ions

Hexane, C6H14

Arabinose, C5H10O5

Hydrogen peroxide,

Al2O3

(C3H7)n where n = 2

(CH2O)n where n = 2

(HO)n where n = 2

CHEM 100, Fall 2012 LA TECH

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slide36
Classifying Organic Compound

s

Examples

Functional Group Ending

Hydrocarbons C and H only -ane

Alcohols R-OH

-ol

Acids R-COOH

Amines R-NH2-amine

KetonesR(C=O)R’-one

Aldehydes R-CHO-al

-oic acid

CHEM 100, Fall 2012 LA TECH

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slide38
The Many Representations of a Molecule

TABLE 3.1 Benzene, Acetylene, Glucose, and Ammonia

Name of Empirical Molecular Structural

Compound Formula Formula Formula Ball-and-Stick Model Space-Filling Model

slide39
11) Identify the classification or name of the

following biologically important molecules

CHEM 100, Fall 2012 LA TECH

2-39

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