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Abraham and Family. Michael Abell Marc Fuller Michael Musgrove. Overview. General similarities and differences between Jewish, Christian, and Islamic beliefs in regards to Abraham and Family Conflict between Isaac and Ishmael Who was sacrificed? Who is the “chosen” son?

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Abraham and family l.jpg

Abraham and Family

Michael Abell

Marc Fuller

Michael Musgrove


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Overview

General similarities and differences between

Jewish, Christian, and Islamic beliefs in

regards to Abraham and Family

Conflict between Isaac and Ishmael

Who was sacrificed? Who is the “chosen” son?

Importance of the Circumcision and the Covenant


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Abraham’s Name

Arabic: Ibrahim

Hebrew: Avraham / Avram

English: Originally Abram, changed to Abraham (Gen 17:3-5)


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Importance

Judaism: Forefather of Jews through line of

Isaac

Christianity: Father of faith

Islam: Built the Ka’bah; prophet of God


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History

Originally from city of Ur

(ancient city in Mesopotamia)

1800 B.C.E. Abraham departs homeland for

Canaan at God’s command (Gen 11:1-6)

Lived to be 175 years old

Built Ka’bah


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Hagar

Judaism

Sarah’s Egyptian maid servant

(Gen 16: 1)

Told to sleep with Abraham by Sarah (Gen 16: 2)

Viewed negatively by Sarah

(Gen 16: 4-5)

Just a concubine so that Abraham could have a

child Ishmael (Gen 16: 3)

Hagar left because of abuse

(Gen 16: 6)


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Hagar

Christianity

Slave woman (Gal 4: 22)

Son is born naturally (Gal 4: 23)

Corresponds to present Jerusalem (Gal 4: 25)

Represents slavery through her and her children

(Gal 4: 25)

“Drive out the slave woman and her son! For the son of the slave woman shall not share the inheritance with the son (Isaac)” (Gal 4: 30)


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Hagar

Islam

Hagar is not mentioned in the Qur’an

Only recognized in footnotes as

“Mother of Ishmael” n. 160


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Sarah

Judaism

Abraham’s half-sister and wife (Gen 20: 1-18)

Earlier in her life she could not bear children

God promises her a son (Gen 18: 9-16)

Has Isaac at age of 90 (Gen 21: 7)


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Sarah

Christianity (Gal 4:21-31)

Freeborn woman

Son is born though a promise of God

Only through her son, Isaac, is the promise of

God preserved

Mother of children of the promise of God


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Sarah

Islam

Sarah isn’t mentioned in the Qur’an


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Isaac

Judaism

Born through Sarah as a promise of God

(Gen 21: 6)

As a promise to the covenant Abraham circumcised Isaac

(Gen 21: 3-5)

Seven years later God tests Abraham by commanding

him to sacrifice Isaac

Angel stops him at last moment


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Isaac

Christianity

God blesses Sarah and gives her a son: Isaac

(Gen 17)

God establishes his covenant with Isaac (Gen 17)

God tests Abraham by commanding him to

sacrifice his promised son Isaac

(Gen 22)

Abraham’s servant finds a wife for Isaac,

Rebekah. (Gen 24)


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Isaac

Islam

Issac is “a prophet, One of the

Righteous” (Surah 37: 112)

The Qur’an refers to Isaac as if the

reader already knows about him


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Yishm'e'l

Judaism

Viewed as wicked through repentant in most Jewish traditions

Ishmael was born through Hagar and Abraham, Sarah’s

Becomes jealous and claims that Hagar looking upon

Sarah with disdain. (Gen 16: 5)

Sarah abuses Hagar, until she flees, she has a child, and

God tells her to name him Yishm’e’l. (Gen 16: 6)

Yishm’e’l was 13 when he was circumcised.

God says Yishm’e’l shall become the father of 12

chieftains. (Gen 17: 20)


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Ishmael

Christianity

Since God had kept Sarah from having

children, she gives her maid servant,

Hagar, to Abraham as a birth mother.

(Gen 16:2)

Hagar gives birth to Ishmael; however

Sarah is displeased with Ishmael and

forces Abraham to send them away.

(Gen 21)

Hagar is sent away with Ishmael under the

command of Sarah, however is given a

promise by God that Ishmael will have a

great nation. (Gen 21)


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Ismā'īl

Islam

Muslims trace their connection to Abraham through

Ismā'īl

Built the Ka’bah with father: Abraham (2:127)

Most Muslims believe that Ismā'īl settled in Mecca

During the hajj each year Muslims reenact the time

Hagar lost her infant son Ismā'īl


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Sacrifice

Judaism

God commands Abraham to sacrifice son in Moriah

(Gen 22: 2)

Isaac wondered where the sacrificial animal was (Gen 22: 7)

Right before Abraham sacrifices son an angel stops him

(Gen 22: 11)

Abraham proved his devotion to God (Gen 22: 12)


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Sacrifice

Christianity

Abraham is put to the test when

asked to sacrifice Isaac

Abraham thinks that even if

Isaac dies, God will be able to

raise him from the dead.

Seen as a supreme act of

perfect faith in God

(Heb 11: 17-19)


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Sacrifice

Christianity

Although Abraham is very important to Christianity, remember Jesus is still key figure to Christian faith.

Abraham is father of Christian faith, but Jesus is Son of God

“Amen, amen, I say to you, before Abraham came to be, I AM.” -Jesus John 8:58


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Sacrifice

Islam

Eid ul-Adha: ceremony focused on Abraham’s

willingness to sacrifice his promised son, which

Muslims believe was Yishm'e'l.

God spared Yishm'e'l ‘s life and instead

Abraham sacrificed a sheep

This was considered Abraham’s test of faith.

(Surah 37: 102-113)


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Judaism:

God commanded Abraham to circumcise himself,

his offspring and his slaves as a sign of an

everlasting covenant.

Isaac was circumcised on the 8th day after his birth, by Abraham, like God commanded of him.

(Gen 21: 4)

Covenant


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Covenant

Christianity

The First Church Council in Jerusalem

decided that circumcision was not a

requirement (Acts 15)

Paul warned Gentile Christians against

adopting Jewish practices.

(Galatians 6: 12-16, Philippians 3:2-3)


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Covenant

Islam

Circumcision is not mentioned as a requirement in the Qu’ran

However it is recommended in Sunni Islam

(http://lexicorient.com/e.o/abraham.html)

Some quote the sayings of Muhammad in the Hadith, saying that circumcision is a requirement based on the covenant made with Abraham and Allah.


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Summary

Abraham

Ju: Forefather of the Jews

Ch: “Father of Faith”

Is: A prophet

Hagar

Ju: Despised

Ch: Mother of slaves

Is: Mother of chosen child

Sarah

Ju: Mother of Isaac

Ch: Mother of freemen

Is: Not mentioned

Ishmael

Ju: Illegitimate child

Ch: “Shall not share the inheritance with the son (Isaac)” Gal 4: 28

Is: Chosen son/ Father of 12 tribes


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Summary

Isaac

Ju: Father of Jacob, Jacob father of 12 tribes of Israel

Ch: Represents the freeborn, chosen son (Gal 4: 26)

Is: Son of Abraham

Covenant

Ju: Promised land and kingdom

Ch: Moving on from traditional Jewish practices

Is: Ishmael promised a kingdom

Sacrifice

Ju: Proof of Abraham’s devotion to God

Ch: Highest form of sacrifice, and ultimate declaration of faith

Is: Ishmael was the sacrificial son


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