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Agriculture in Transition Sociology 325
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  1. Agriculture in TransitionSociology 325 Dr. Paul Lasley Tomoko Ogawa Jolene Glenn

  2. Your Connection to 325 www.soc.iastate.edu/class/soc325.html

  3. Course Objectives 1. Understanding of the historical basis of U.S. agriculture and rural society. 2. Overview of major decisions and events that shaped our food and fiber system. 3. Provide a framework to anticipate the future and how these trends impact upon rural society, families and individuals. 4. Provide linkage between large-scale macro forces and career options and opportunities.

  4. Textbooks for Class • The Development of American Agriculture, Williard Cochrane • Plus assigned readings from guest lecturers

  5. Class Evaluation • Attendance and Participation 15% • Term Paper 20% • Exam 1 20% • Exam 2 20% • Final Exam 25%

  6. 325 XW Class Evaluation • Participation 5 percent • Ethics term paper 10 percent • County agricultural transition term paper 25 percent • First hourly exam 20 percent • Second hourly exam 20 percent • Comprehensive final exam 20 percent

  7. Course is divided into 3 main periods... Unit 1 Colonial Period 1607 - 1800 Pioneering Period 1800 - 1900 Unit 2 Modernization 1900 - 1945 Industrialization 1945 - present Unit 3 Re-integration 1990 Commercialization Bio-genetics future

  8. Questions we want to Explore • How has agriculture and rural life changed? • By what mechanism or forces has caused these changes? (What accounts for these changes?) • What are the expected changes in the future? • What are the consequences (both positive and negative) of these changes?

  9. Twin Pillars of Rural Culture Structure ofAgriculture RuralCommunities

  10. Is it agriculture or agri culture? Culture — Values Beliefs Behaviors Lifestyle

  11. StructureofAgriculture RuralCulture Worldwide Global International Foreign

  12. Defining a “farm” What is a farm? What is agriculture? What is a family farm? What other types of farm exist?

  13. Million “Official” Definition FARM -- according to U.S. Census of Agriculture is any unit that has agricultural sales of $1,000 or more per year 6.8 1.9 1920 2002

  14. “Family Farm” According to Lasley • Labor • Capital • Management • Land Ownership • Residency • Dependency

  15. The 3 Sectors of Agriculture INPUT PRODUCTION OUTPUT (Supply) (Farm) (Processing) Transportation Slaughterers Canners Millers Wholesalers Retailers Seed Fertilizer Machinery Credit Fuel Pesticides Science/ Extension Where actual production takes place Farm people Farm organizations Farm communities

  16. What is the difference between a farm and a factory?

  17. Culture and Agriculture Chapter 1 An introduction to Transitions In Agriculture

  18. Dominate Values of Agriculture and Rural Communities • Freedom to make own decisions/independence • Opportunity for self Improvement • A worthwhile occupation • Way of life as well as business • Work outdoors/with nature • Place to raise a family

  19. Rural Communtiy Characteristics • Common Societal Characteristics of Rural/Farm communities • Open: many opportunities to go into farming • Equality: autocratic businesses can be formed • Integration of work and family (farming is a lifestyle) • Socialization of children though work • Homogeneous society • Culture dominated by agrarian issues

  20. Population Residency Urban Population Rural Non-farm population Farm Population 70% 40% 20% 2% 1880 1980

  21. Population Residency Urban PopulationFarm Population 100 % 95 % 50 % 5 % 1790 1860 1920 1980

  22. What is the future of Agriculture? Can agriculture progress positively from its current point? Will it simply continue at a status quo? Is the only direction we go from here a negative one?