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Advanced Training for Reading First Coaches Section 1: Managing School-wide Change

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    1. Advanced Training for Reading First Coaches Section 1: Managing School-wide Change Presenters notes Presenters notes

    2. 2 Managing School-wide Change Content Revisiting What You Know Recognizing realities of change in Reading First Using Concerns-Based Adoption Model to address change Sharpening Your Skills Dealing with resistance Discussing the undiscussables Tips and Cautions Next Steps Presenters notes [estimated times provided for a two-hour segment] Revisit two areas that you know quite a bit about. [30 minutes] Realities of Change in Reading First Applying the Concerns-Based Adoption Model Focus for sharpening your skills will be Dealing with resistance [40 minutes] Discussing the undiscussables [40 minutes] Conclude with tips/cautions and next steps [10 minutes] Presenters notes [estimated times provided for a two-hour segment] Revisit two areas that you know quite a bit about. [30 minutes] Realities of Change in Reading First Applying the Concerns-Based Adoption Model Focus for sharpening your skills will be Dealing with resistance [40 minutes] Discussing the undiscussables [40 minutes] Conclude with tips/cautions and next steps [10 minutes]

    3. 3 Managing School-wide Change The Call to Change Implementing change in ways that benefit student learning requires leadership skills. All educators are being challenged to become leaders who can make a difference by helping implement changes necessary to improve learning. Leaders must teach others what they know and how to do it in order to develop others as leaders to share in the responsibility of implementing the necessary changes. M. Fullan Leading in a Culture of Change Presenters notes Presenters notes

    4. 4 Managing School-wide Change A KEY ROLE FOR COACHES Coaches must recognize the challenges of implementing school-wide change and have strategies in place to lead staff successfully. Presenters notes The human element of the change process affects both the fears or concerns involved and the differences in skill levels. You may have encountered some resistance from certain teachers during your time as a coach. You may have wondered just what you can do to help a grade level team work together. Perhaps some of your teachers have a clear understanding of how to interpret student data and others struggle to make it work for them. Presenters notes The human element of the change process affects both the fears or concerns involved and the differences in skill levels. You may have encountered some resistance from certain teachers during your time as a coach. You may have wondered just what you can do to help a grade level team work together. Perhaps some of your teachers have a clear understanding of how to interpret student data and others struggle to make it work for them.

    5. 5 Managing School-wide Change Revisiting What You Know Presenters notes This section addresses two areas: Recognizing realities of change in Reading First Using the Concerns-Based Adoption Model to address change. Estimated time: 30 minutes. Presenters notes This section addresses two areas: Recognizing realities of change in Reading First Using the Concerns-Based Adoption Model to address change. Estimated time: 30 minutes.

    6. 6 Managing School-wide Change Change and Reading First The change that Reading First involves can be hard for teachers and staff to accept and master To be a successful coach, you need to Understand how systems change works in schools Use effective strategies to guide staff through this school-wide change Presenters notes Lets revisit what you know about your leadership role in the change that Reading First implies. As coaches, you accomplish much of your work through the actions of others to improve student outcomes. You cannot change outcomes by yourself. Because of this, it is critical that you as a coach reflect on the human response to change. Change can be hard for people to accept, incorporate, and master. Managing the process of change requires sensitivity and knowledge about systems change and human reactions. As school leaders, you need to identify strategies for guiding and supporting staff members in the change process. Presenters notes Lets revisit what you know about your leadership role in the change that Reading First implies. As coaches, you accomplish much of your work through the actions of others to improve student outcomes. You cannot change outcomes by yourself. Because of this, it is critical that you as a coach reflect on the human response to change. Change can be hard for people to accept, incorporate, and master. Managing the process of change requires sensitivity and knowledge about systems change and human reactions. As school leaders, you need to identify strategies for guiding and supporting staff members in the change process.

    7. 7 What kinds of changes are involved in Reading First? Reading First changes What and how teachers teach What is tested and who does it Schedules/use of time in classrooms How much is expected of K-3 students How teachers work across regular education, Title I, and special education How teachers make decisions about what goes on in their classrooms Intensity of instruction Presenters notes As coaches, you know that staff may have to leave their comfort zone and do things that they have not done before or even that they find contrary to their way of thinking about reading. Here are just some of the realities of change for the staff members in your schools. Presenters notes As coaches, you know that staff may have to leave their comfort zone and do things that they have not done before or even that they find contrary to their way of thinking about reading. Here are just some of the realities of change for the staff members in your schools.

    8. 8 Ask the Experts I work in a Reading First school, but my teachers are hesitant to embrace the Reading First principles. They feel their students are doing as well as they can. Theyre satisfied with things as they are. Help! What can I do? Presenters notes Note: ASK the EXPERTS ACTIVITY The intent is to provide an opportunity to recognize the groups expertise. There are 2-4 per section. Questions can be used on the slide or copied onto an index card or note page and given to a participant/table to read or ask. Have a participant read the scenario and pose the question. Give participants, as the experts, time to discuss with colleagues. Allow time for whole group sharing of responses. If time is limited, label a sheet of chart paper with the question and ask participants to post additional suggestions on the chart. Presenters notes Note: ASK the EXPERTS ACTIVITY The intent is to provide an opportunity to recognize the groups expertise. There are 2-4 per section. Questions can be used on the slide or copied onto an index card or note page and given to a participant/table to read or ask. Have a participant read the scenario and pose the question. Give participants, as the experts, time to discuss with colleagues. Allow time for whole group sharing of responses. If time is limited, label a sheet of chart paper with the question and ask participants to post additional suggestions on the chart.

    9. 9 Concerns-Based Adoption Model (CBAM) Presenters notes Briefly address the Concerns-Based Adoption Model. (More information at: http://www.nas.edu/rise/backg4a.htm) The information below explains the framework and rationale. Slide 10 will focus on specifics of Stages of Concern. Slide 11 details Levels of Use. Because the choices within Reading First classrooms involve change, and there are likely to be teachers with varying degrees of experience and acceptance of the change, it is important to revisit the Stages of Concern and Levels of Use from this model. Accomplishing school-wide change involves meeting a teacher where she/he is on this continuum and helping to move him/her towards change. Concerns-Based Adoption Model is a framework that describes, explains, and predicts how staff may behave throughout the school-wide change process. The model describes how people considering and experiencing change evolve in the kinds of questions they ask (stages of concern) and in their use of whatever the change is (levels of use). Using a model such as this helps you as a coach understand where staff are in the process and how to assist them in becoming more engaged with change and more comfortable and skilled with use of new practices over time. When people question or resist change, it is not necessary to write them off. They need time and support to understand and incorporate the changes that are being asked of them. It is important to look for ways to support themto help them become willing to try the change and develop their expertise. People may need a bridge (e.g., coaching/support) to transfer their learning from the training setting to the application setting (i.e., the classroom) or to move from one level of the continuum to the next. There are many points on each continuum, and each staff member can be at any point along the way.Presenters notes Briefly address the Concerns-Based Adoption Model. (More information at: http://www.nas.edu/rise/backg4a.htm) The information below explains the framework and rationale. Slide 10 will focus on specifics of Stages of Concern. Slide 11 details Levels of Use. Because the choices within Reading First classrooms involve change, and there are likely to be teachers with varying degrees of experience and acceptance of the change, it is important to revisit the Stages of Concern and Levels of Use from this model. Accomplishing school-wide change involves meeting a teacher where she/he is on this continuum and helping to move him/her towards change. Concerns-Based Adoption Model is a framework that describes, explains, and predicts how staff may behave throughout the school-wide change process. The model describes how people considering and experiencing change evolve in the kinds of questions they ask (stages of concern) and in their use of whatever the change is (levels of use). Using a model such as this helps you as a coach understand where staff are in the process and how to assist them in becoming more engaged with change and more comfortable and skilled with use of new practices over time. When people question or resist change, it is not necessary to write them off. They need time and support to understand and incorporate the changes that are being asked of them. It is important to look for ways to support themto help them become willing to try the change and develop their expertise. People may need a bridge (e.g., coaching/support) to transfer their learning from the training setting to the application setting (i.e., the classroom) or to move from one level of the continuum to the next. There are many points on each continuum, and each staff member can be at any point along the way.

    10. 10 CBAM Stages of Concern Typical Questions/Comments Presenters notes Materials Handout 1.1: Typical Expressions of Concern About An Innovation [chart showing all seven levels]. The seven stages of concern go from the lower stages, which focus on concerns about self, through the management stage focused on mastery of tasks and routines to the upper stages of concern, which focus on results and impact. The strength of the Stages of Concern continuum is in its reminder to pay attention to individuals and their need for information, assistance, and moral support. With Reading First, as with any change, it is important to attend to where people are and address the questions they are asking when they are asking them. Some of the questions staff members ask will be self-oriented (e.g., What is it? How will it affect me?). Other staff may be at the task-oriented stage (e.g., How can I do this? How can I organize myself? Why does this take so much time?). After these self- and task-oriented questions are largely resolved, people can focus on impact (e.g., Is this working for students? Will something work better?). These stages have major implications for coaching. First, coaching can become more individualized. The kinds and content of coaching opportunities can be informed by ongoing monitoring of the concerns of teachers. Second, this model suggests the importance of paying attention to implementation for several years, because it may take at least three years for early concerns to be resolved and later ones to emerge. Teachers need to have their initial self-concerns recognized before they are ready to alter hands-on practices. Presenters notes Materials Handout 1.1: Typical Expressions of Concern About An Innovation [chart showing all seven levels]. The seven stages of concern go from the lower stages, which focus on concerns about self, through the management stage focused on mastery of tasks and routines to the upper stages of concern, which focus on results and impact. The strength of the Stages of Concern continuum is in its reminder to pay attention to individuals and their need for information, assistance, and moral support. With Reading First, as with any change, it is important to attend to where people are and address the questions they are asking when they are asking them. Some of the questions staff members ask will be self-oriented (e.g., What is it? How will it affect me?). Other staff may be at the task-oriented stage (e.g., How can I do this? How can I organize myself? Why does this take so much time?). After these self- and task-oriented questions are largely resolved, people can focus on impact (e.g., Is this working for students? Will something work better?). These stages have major implications for coaching. First, coaching can become more individualized. The kinds and content of coaching opportunities can be informed by ongoing monitoring of the concerns of teachers. Second, this model suggests the importance of paying attention to implementation for several years, because it may take at least three years for early concerns to be resolved and later ones to emerge. Teachers need to have their initial self-concerns recognized before they are ready to alter hands-on practices.

    11. 11 CBAM Levels of Use: ACTIVITY Typical Behaviors/Comments Read and reflect Levels of Use Continuum (0 Non-Use ? ? ? ? ?7 Renewal) What to look for in the classroom What to listen for in the teachers lounge Consider: The teachers you coach Answer the question: How would you place the levels of use of your teachers on this continuum based on classroom behaviors and teacher talk? Presenters notes Materials Handout 1.2: Levels of Use: Look and Listen Guide This is a tool to help coaches figure out the teachers understanding and practice levels of the reading program in order to provide appropriate support. Note for participants that the columns indicate looking for evidence of understanding and use when in the classroom as well as listening for evidence in other contexts such as in the teachers lounge or lunchroom. Allow coaches a few minutes to browse and share thoughts at the table. Then provide directions above. Presenters notes Materials Handout 1.2: Levels of Use: Look and Listen Guide This is a tool to help coaches figure out the teachers understanding and practice levels of the reading program in order to provide appropriate support. Note for participants that the columns indicate looking for evidence of understanding and use when in the classroom as well as listening for evidence in other contexts such as in the teachers lounge or lunchroom. Allow coaches a few minutes to browse and share thoughts at the table. Then provide directions above.

    12. 12 CBAM LEVELS OF USE With a Partner: 1. Compare levels of use results for your teachers. 2. Discuss the challenges you face in moving your school forward. 3. How can CBAM help you face these challenges? Presenters notes Keep in mind the levels of use continuum and where your teachers are in terms of skill levels for doing the work of Reading First. How can you keep nudging and supporting individual teachers as they move to the next stage regarding the issues of change? Ask for some group responses to question 3. Presenters notes Keep in mind the levels of use continuum and where your teachers are in terms of skill levels for doing the work of Reading First. How can you keep nudging and supporting individual teachers as they move to the next stage regarding the issues of change? Ask for some group responses to question 3.

    13. 13 Managing School-wide Change Sharpening Your Skills Presenters notes This section provides information and practice in two areas of focus for participants: dealing with resistance and discussing the undiscussables. This segment requires about 80 minutes. Vary times as needed for the groups success. Presenters notes This section provides information and practice in two areas of focus for participants: dealing with resistance and discussing the undiscussables. This segment requires about 80 minutes. Vary times as needed for the groups success.

    14. 14 Sharpening Your Skills Two Key Areas of Expertise Dealing with Resistance Discussing the Undiscussables Presenters notes Two key areas of coaching that can make a big difference in your results - Dealing with Resistance and Discussing the Undiscussables. As you move from faithful implementation to skillful teaching as your goal, these two areas are most helpful to master.Presenters notes Two key areas of coaching that can make a big difference in your results - Dealing with Resistance and Discussing the Undiscussables. As you move from faithful implementation to skillful teaching as your goal, these two areas are most helpful to master.

    15. 15 Sharpening Your Skills Dealing with Resistance Resistance IS a natural part of the change process. Presenters notes As a coach, you need to Recognize resistance, Understand why it is occurring, and Figure out how to deal with it when it happens. Presenters notes As a coach, you need to Recognize resistance, Understand why it is occurring, and Figure out how to deal with it when it happens.

    16. 16 Sharpening Your Skills Recognizing Resistance What can resistance sound like in the comments of teachers you coach? Consider these behaviors REFUSAL. I cant add one more LIP-SERVICE Okay, sure. BLAME But, our kids are DELAY When I have time to learn. PAST PRACTICE But, we always Presenters notes How do resistant teachers sound? How does it sound in our schools? Recognize any of these? In your teachers? In yourself? Presenters notes How do resistant teachers sound? How does it sound in our schools? Recognize any of these? In your teachers? In yourself?

    17. 17 Sharpening Your Skills Why Does Resistance Occur? Natural reaction of people such as Fear Feeling powerless Leadership factors such as Lack of trust Unclear expectations Presenters notes Why does it occur in our schools? Think back to the conversation about Concerns-Based Adoption Model. First, where are people on the concerns continuum? Are they fearful? Do they feel powerless? Second, what are you and your principal doing to support and nudge? Have you built the trust you need? Are your expectations as clear as you would like? Sometimes teaching staff resist the best efforts of school leaders to guide their implementation of new practices in teaching reading. When this happens, you as the coach need strategies to work through the resistance. Remember that resistance is natural. It does not necessarily mean I dont care. It often means I dont know (how) or I dont understand (why). Presenters notes Why does it occur in our schools? Think back to the conversation about Concerns-Based Adoption Model. First, where are people on the concerns continuum? Are they fearful? Do they feel powerless? Second, what are you and your principal doing to support and nudge? Have you built the trust you need? Are your expectations as clear as you would like? Sometimes teaching staff resist the best efforts of school leaders to guide their implementation of new practices in teaching reading. When this happens, you as the coach need strategies to work through the resistance. Remember that resistance is natural. It does not necessarily mean I dont care. It often means I dont know (how) or I dont understand (why).

    18. 18 Sharpening Your Skills Reflection: Who Is Resisting? Consider Who are the resisters? How resistant are they? What are the reasons? What strategies for support will work? Presenters notes Materials Handout 1.3: Resistance: A Self-Reflection Review Directions on Handout: Identify teachers you coach or have coached who are either a 2 or 3 on the resistance scale. Place their names on the chart. Indicate what reasons for resistance may apply. Use this chart to determine some possible ways to help these resisters as we talk about strategies for support. Take about 5 minutes to answer questions 1-3. Keep the chart available as we talk about question 4 on strategies. Presenters notes Materials Handout 1.3: Resistance: A Self-Reflection Review Directions on Handout: Identify teachers you coach or have coached who are either a 2 or 3 on the resistance scale. Place their names on the chart. Indicate what reasons for resistance may apply. Use this chart to determine some possible ways to help these resisters as we talk about strategies for support. Take about 5 minutes to answer questions 1-3. Keep the chart available as we talk about question 4 on strategies.

    19. 19 STRATEGIES THAT WORK Dealing with Resistance Listen really listen Build a positive school culture Energize, support, and motivate teachers Celebrate successes Presenters notes Key strategies for dealing with resistance: LISTEN It is your responsibility to be a listener and to allow teachers to reflect on what they are experiencing as they are dealing with change. A strong understanding of the mission and vision for the school will support the change. However, it is necessary to recognize teachers who are resistant to the change and to help them address their concerns and move forward. POSITIVE CLIMATE/MOTIVATION Coaches can benefit from capitalizing on the successes of the non-resistant teachers and sharing their successes though energizing activities. CELEBRATION You need to take the lead in recognizing the successes of your school and celebrating those successes. Presenters notes Key strategies for dealing with resistance: LISTEN It is your responsibility to be a listener and to allow teachers to reflect on what they are experiencing as they are dealing with change. A strong understanding of the mission and vision for the school will support the change. However, it is necessary to recognize teachers who are resistant to the change and to help them address their concerns and move forward. POSITIVE CLIMATE/MOTIVATION Coaches can benefit from capitalizing on the successes of the non-resistant teachers and sharing their successes though energizing activities. CELEBRATION You need to take the lead in recognizing the successes of your school and celebrating those successes.

    20. 20 MORE STRATEGIES THAT WORK Supporting Resistant Teachers Express empathy, but expect change Appeal to core values Engage shared mission/vision/beliefs State expectations be specific Build immediate success Model a problem solving approach Provide training and support as needed Provide affirmation/encouragement for progress Presenters notes Supporting Resistant Teachers The coachs role is to help teachers deal with their concerns and move forward. Coaches can sometimes do this by appealing to the core values on which the schools Reading First program is based. (e.g., all students achieving in reading, shared responsibility for student success, scientifically based instruction, continuity across classrooms and services, data-driven decision-making.) Unclear expectations are often a reason for resistance. Make sure your expectations and those of your principal are clear. Give your resistant teachers something specific to do that will give them immediate success. Effective coaches work long and hard to help reluctant or resistive staff members get on board and up to speed in positive, constructive ways. Honest communication and problem-solving, as well as additional training and support, can help ease staff resistance. Never forget to encourage and celebrate all along the way. Presenters notes Supporting Resistant Teachers The coachs role is to help teachers deal with their concerns and move forward. Coaches can sometimes do this by appealing to the core values on which the schools Reading First program is based. (e.g., all students achieving in reading, shared responsibility for student success, scientifically based instruction, continuity across classrooms and services, data-driven decision-making.) Unclear expectations are often a reason for resistance. Make sure your expectations and those of your principal are clear. Give your resistant teachers something specific to do that will give them immediate success. Effective coaches work long and hard to help reluctant or resistive staff members get on board and up to speed in positive, constructive ways. Honest communication and problem-solving, as well as additional training and support, can help ease staff resistance. Never forget to encourage and celebrate all along the way.

    21. 21 MORE STRATEGIES THAT WORK Supporting Resistant Teachers Brainstorm with your colleagues Are there other strategies for supporting resistant teachers that you would recommend? Be prepared to share Presenters notes Brainstorm any other strategies coaches may use to support resistant teachers. Allow about 5 minutes for discussion. Report out (no more than 5 minutes). Presenters notes Brainstorm any other strategies coaches may use to support resistant teachers. Allow about 5 minutes for discussion. Report out (no more than 5 minutes).

    22. 22 Complete Reflection: What Strategies Will Work? Consider Who are the resisters? How resistant are they? What are the reasons? What strategies for support will work? Presenters notes Materials Handout 1.3: Resistance: A Self-Reflection Have participants use the chart to answer question 4 on strategies for the resisters they have identified. Refer to the additional strategies identified by group. (Allow about 5 minutes.) Presenters notes Materials Handout 1.3: Resistance: A Self-Reflection Have participants use the chart to answer question 4 on strategies for the resisters they have identified. Refer to the additional strategies identified by group. (Allow about 5 minutes.)

    23. 23 Managing School-wide Change Ask the Experts Im working with a grade level team. Four are skilled and motivated; good things are happening in their classrooms. One is a REALLY weak teacher. They are more than colleagues theyre personal friends. Im hesitant to single out the weak teacher for fear of offending the whole group. Help! What can I do? Presenters notes Note: ASK the EXPERTS ACTIVITY The intent is to provide an opportunity to recognize the groups expertise. There are 2-4 per section. Questions can be used on the slide or copied onto an index card or note page and given to a participant/table to read or ask. Have a participant read the scenario and pose the question. Give participants, as the experts, time to discuss with colleagues. Allow time for whole group sharing of responses. If time is limited, label a sheet of chart paper with the question and ask participants to post additional suggestions on the chart. Presenters notes Note: ASK the EXPERTS ACTIVITY The intent is to provide an opportunity to recognize the groups expertise. There are 2-4 per section. Questions can be used on the slide or copied onto an index card or note page and given to a participant/table to read or ask. Have a participant read the scenario and pose the question. Give participants, as the experts, time to discuss with colleagues. Allow time for whole group sharing of responses. If time is limited, label a sheet of chart paper with the question and ask participants to post additional suggestions on the chart.

    24. 24 Sharpening Your Skills Discussing the Undiscussables Powerful coaching conversations include the skill of discussing undiscussables like the scenario you just considered. What other undiscussable topics have you faced as coaches? Presenters notes Materials Handout 1.4: Committed Speaking Have participants brainstorm some other undiscussable topics you have faced as coaches. Take about 3 minutes. Discuss the Undiscussables (including Diagrams 3.2 and 3.3). Direct participants to read and highlight. Encourage a quiet atmosphere. After 5 minutes, call the group back together. Select a few volunteers to share key points from the reading with the group. Presenters notes Materials Handout 1.4: Committed Speaking Have participants brainstorm some other undiscussable topics you have faced as coaches. Take about 3 minutes. Discuss the Undiscussables (including Diagrams 3.2 and 3.3). Direct participants to read and highlight. Encourage a quiet atmosphere. After 5 minutes, call the group back together. Select a few volunteers to share key points from the reading with the group.

    25. 25 Discuss the Undiscussables Social Grease vs. Coaching Communication Dont make feedback that is needed for growth and learning undiscussable even if it is embarrassing or threatening. Be clear about the difference between social grease and coaching communication. Be willing to bring the background conversation to the foreground to improve student achievement. Presenters notes Participants have just read a brief description of the difference between social grease and coaching communication. Help them synthesize the three key points above.Presenters notes Participants have just read a brief description of the difference between social grease and coaching communication. Help them synthesize the three key points above.

    26. 26 Social Grease V. Coaching Communication PRACTICE As a group Choose two or three of the topics brainstormed earlier by the group. Record a social grease response and a coaching communication response for each. Display the responses for one undiscussable topic on chart paper. Presenters notes Materials Handout 1.5: Undiscussable Topics Chart paper Using Handout 1.5 and the instructions on the slide allows about 5 minutes for participants to record their responses. Ask each group to display one topic on chart paper. Presenters notes Materials Handout 1.5: Undiscussable Topics Chart paper Using Handout 1.5 and the instructions on the slide allows about 5 minutes for participants to record their responses. Ask each group to display one topic on chart paper.

    27. 27 Social Grease vs. Coaching Communication Walk the Walls Walk around the room and read the charts posted. Compare and contrast social grease responses and coaching communication responses. Answer these questions How did the social grease response lack commitment? How did the coaching communication response address the undiscussable? Presenters notes Take about 5 minutes. Have some participants report out.Presenters notes Take about 5 minutes. Have some participants report out.

    28. 28 Taking on Tough Conversations Consider Think about the teachers at your school. Identify those with whom you had a coaching communication recently. Answer the questions on the Self Reflection Taking on Tough Conversations Presenters notes Materials Handout 1.6: Taking on Tough Conversations: A Self-Reflection Have participants consider the in-class support they provided and the conversations they did or did not have. (This activity is confidential and will not be shared with others.) Take about 8 minutes for the activity. Presenters notes Materials Handout 1.6: Taking on Tough Conversations: A Self-Reflection Have participants consider the in-class support they provided and the conversations they did or did not have. (This activity is confidential and will not be shared with others.) Take about 8 minutes for the activity.

    29. 29 Taking on Tough Conversations: Final Thoughts Getting results now requires changing behaviors Our goal: Teachers leave coaching conversations feeling empowered to take timely action in the classroom. To achieve this result, we need to take on the hard conversations with every teacher. Presenters notes Help participants understand the connection between the focus on hard conversations and the urgency of the change we are seeking in Reading First.Presenters notes Help participants understand the connection between the focus on hard conversations and the urgency of the change we are seeking in Reading First.

    30. 30 Managing School-wide Change TIPS and CAUTIONS Presenters notes Some of the advice related to this section can be provided quickly in terms of experience-based tips and cautions.Presenters notes Some of the advice related to this section can be provided quickly in terms of experience-based tips and cautions.

    31. 31 Supporting Teachers Through School-wide Change TIPS AND CAUTIONS Implementation Phases and Your Role Initial Implementation - big changes CBAMS levels 1 and 2 (orientation & preparation) Adjustments - tweaking CBAMS levels 3 and 4 (mechanical and routine) Maintenance - refreshers CBAMs levels 5 and 6 (refinement and integration) Sustainability morphing/re-integrating CBAMs level 7 (renewal) Presenters notes Guide coaches in thinking more about the stages or phases of change and the ways their roles may vary over time using some of the information below. Depending on how long coaches have been working with teachers and what was in place when the coach began, the role as a coach will vary. Over the years, we must morph and change our responsibilities to match the needs of the teachers and students. For example: Initially, there may be a need for big changes (for example, SBRR comprehensive learning system is only partially in place, or no assessment at the beginning, middle, and end of year for all students) with easily identifiable goals. Coaches will do a lot of in-class modeling, observations, as well as meetings. Coaches will be providing a lot of professional development. Next, there may be an adjustment phase in which the comprehensive learning system is in place, so the focus moves to more minor, but still significant changes. The coach may be assisting teachers in their use of the features of effective instruction, such as ensuring that students have multiple opportunities to respond. The coach will still be working in classrooms often, but the goals are more precise and aimed at tweaking instruction so that it benefits the students even more. Maintenance phase Teachers have the reading program down, as evidenced by the data. Students are consistently meeting benchmarks and intervention is providing necessary support for those students who need it. The coachs role is to encourage, praise, and keep teachers focused on the data and student outcomes. Modeling and demonstrations may be limited at this point. Although teachers have gotten in the swing of doing what they are doing, sometimes they will revert back to old ways, forgetting the great resources and tools they have learned about. If so, it is time for refresher trainings during grade-level meetings, organizing times for teachers to observe one another, planning time for teachers to sit down and review materials. Finally, the sustainability phase - things are running like clockwork and the coach has to make sure it stays that way. The coach begins to identify others who could perform specific roles and responsibilities after Reading First funding ends and consider having those people shadow the coach during job functions. The coach may be involved in planning meetings regarding sustainability. Depending on how much time this takes, the coach may move into different roles. Presenters notes Guide coaches in thinking more about the stages or phases of change and the ways their roles may vary over time using some of the information below. Depending on how long coaches have been working with teachers and what was in place when the coach began, the role as a coach will vary. Over the years, we must morph and change our responsibilities to match the needs of the teachers and students. For example: Initially, there may be a need for big changes (for example, SBRR comprehensive learning system is only partially in place, or no assessment at the beginning, middle, and end of year for all students) with easily identifiable goals. Coaches will do a lot of in-class modeling, observations, as well as meetings. Coaches will be providing a lot of professional development. Next, there may be an adjustment phase in which the comprehensive learning system is in place, so the focus moves to more minor, but still significant changes. The coach may be assisting teachers in their use of the features of effective instruction, such as ensuring that students have multiple opportunities to respond. The coach will still be working in classrooms often, but the goals are more precise and aimed at tweaking instruction so that it benefits the students even more. Maintenance phase Teachers have the reading program down, as evidenced by the data. Students are consistently meeting benchmarks and intervention is providing necessary support for those students who need it. The coachs role is to encourage, praise, and keep teachers focused on the data and student outcomes. Modeling and demonstrations may be limited at this point. Although teachers have gotten in the swing of doing what they are doing, sometimes they will revert back to old ways, forgetting the great resources and tools they have learned about. If so, it is time for refresher trainings during grade-level meetings, organizing times for teachers to observe one another, planning time for teachers to sit down and review materials. Finally, the sustainability phase - things are running like clockwork and the coach has to make sure it stays that way. The coach begins to identify others who could perform specific roles and responsibilities after Reading First funding ends and consider having those people shadow the coach during job functions. The coach may be involved in planning meetings regarding sustainability. Depending on how much time this takes, the coach may move into different roles.

    32. 32 TIPS AND CAUTIONS Energizing and Motivating Teachers Value teacher strengths that link to student outcomes Gratitude and Recognition (6 Steps) Look for opportunities for sincere praise Catch people doing things right Keep encouragement pure Focus on specific information Be a compliment messenger Praise in multiple directions Glaser & Glaser 2006 Presenters notes Help participants focus on the importance of directly relating encouragement and praise to student outcomes and specific teacher behaviors that produce those outcomes. The information below from the Glasers provides a good set of tips for how to deliver teacher recognition. Six specific Gratitude and Recognition Steps for energizing and motivating teachers who are going through the change process. We are all interdependent on one another. Make honest praise a regular event in your coaching. What are teachers doing to contribute to the success of the school? Catch them in the act and recognize what theyre doing. Be careful that you dont fall into the habit of recognizing a positive only just before you point out a negative. It is important that you keep your positive comments directed to specific behaviors. Repeat the good stories you hear and make sure youre being fair and inclusive in your recognition of the teachers with whom you work. Glaser, Susan R., and Glaser, Peter A. (2006) Be Quiet, Be Heard: The Paradox of Persuasion.Presenters notes Help participants focus on the importance of directly relating encouragement and praise to student outcomes and specific teacher behaviors that produce those outcomes. The information below from the Glasers provides a good set of tips for how to deliver teacher recognition. Six specific Gratitude and Recognition Steps for energizing and motivating teachers who are going through the change process. We are all interdependent on one another. Make honest praise a regular event in your coaching. What are teachers doing to contribute to the success of the school? Catch them in the act and recognize what theyre doing. Be careful that you dont fall into the habit of recognizing a positive only just before you point out a negative. It is important that you keep your positive comments directed to specific behaviors. Repeat the good stories you hear and make sure youre being fair and inclusive in your recognition of the teachers with whom you work. Glaser, Susan R., and Glaser, Peter A. (2006) Be Quiet, Be Heard: The Paradox of Persuasion.

    33. 33 REMEMBER Comments must be significant specific sincere Presenters notes Remind participants that feedback to teachers should be significant, specific, and sincere. These tips provide a good wrap-up for honing our skills about change knowing that results for students is our goal: Try not to avoid approaching teachers about difficult topics. Keep communication open and direct. Be responsible in responding to each teacher. Presenters notes Remind participants that feedback to teachers should be significant, specific, and sincere. These tips provide a good wrap-up for honing our skills about change knowing that results for students is our goal: Try not to avoid approaching teachers about difficult topics. Keep communication open and direct. Be responsible in responding to each teacher.

    34. 34 Managing School-wide Change Ask the Experts A new teacher in my school is not aligned philosophically with the use of scientifically based reading instruction. She says nothing in my presence but makes negative comments among colleagues. Help! What do I do? Presenters notes Note: ASK the EXPERTS ACTIVITY The intent is to provide an opportunity to recognize the groups expertise. There are 2-4 per section. Questions can be used on the slide or copied onto an index card or note page and given to a participant/table to read or ask. Have a participant read the scenario and pose the question. Give participants, as the experts, time to discuss with colleagues. Allow time for whole group sharing of responses. If time is limited, label a sheet of chart paper with the question and ask participants to post additional suggestions on the chart. Presenters notes Note: ASK the EXPERTS ACTIVITY The intent is to provide an opportunity to recognize the groups expertise. There are 2-4 per section. Questions can be used on the slide or copied onto an index card or note page and given to a participant/table to read or ask. Have a participant read the scenario and pose the question. Give participants, as the experts, time to discuss with colleagues. Allow time for whole group sharing of responses. If time is limited, label a sheet of chart paper with the question and ask participants to post additional suggestions on the chart.

    35. 35 Managing School-wide Change Final Reflection: What have you learned today that will help you keep resistance and the undiscussables from sabotaging your schools goals for achievement? Turn and Talk: Share your reflection with a partner. Next Steps: What strategies for managing school-wide change will you work on? Presenters notes Complete a final reflection. Talk to a partner. Determine your next steps.Presenters notes Complete a final reflection. Talk to a partner. Determine your next steps.

    36. 36 Coaching and Change In Closing As a Coach leading a change effort, you need high respect for the importance of the task at hand and the importance of the people involved in the task. Presenters notes This simple statement helps put things into perspective regarding your role in the school-wide change process. Coaching is demanding. It is never-ending. It requires many hats. At this stage in your coaching, you may need to ask yourself How am I showing HIGH RESPECT for both the task at hand (making sure students are reading at high levels) and the people who work directly with those students (the teachers whom I coach)?Presenters notes This simple statement helps put things into perspective regarding your role in the school-wide change process. Coaching is demanding. It is never-ending. It requires many hats. At this stage in your coaching, you may need to ask yourself How am I showing HIGH RESPECT for both the task at hand (making sure students are reading at high levels) and the people who work directly with those students (the teachers whom I coach)?