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These sections are about: Muslims who invaded India. The co-existence of Hinduism and Islam in India. How the Ottoman Turks realized their dream to unite Muslims in the Middle East and parts of Europe under one vast empire.

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These sections are about:

Muslims who invaded India.

The co-existence of Hinduism and Islam in India.

How the Ottoman Turks realized their dream to unite Muslims in the Middle East and parts of Europe under one vast empire.

The Safavids – Shiite Muslims who took power from the Sunni Muslims of the Ottoman Empire.

Section III: Islamic Rulers in India(Pages 186-189)Section IV: The Ottoman and Safavid Empires (Pages 190-193)


There were a lot of people fighting for control of India from 550-1150 AD.

No one really ever could make India 1 big empire (it had a lot of small little kingdoms).

There were always new people coming in and trying to control the people.



one of the islamic invaders of india was mahmud of ghazni
One of the Islamic invaders of India was Mahmud of Ghazni
  • He invaded India 17 times (took Hindu art, jewels, gold, silver, and slaves (and even the gates of the town).
  • Most invaders would do the same – go in, take India’s wealth, and go back home.
  • But in 1186, Qutb ud-Aibak started an Islamic state in northern India.
  • This was the beginning of an Islamic presence in India.
  • Mulsims in that part of the world were called Mughals.


muslims and hindus didn t get along too well in india
Their beliefs were so different, their cultures didn’t blend together too well.

For example – music is important to Hindu ceremonies, but Muslims condemned music and dance in religious ceremonies.

The only thing that blended was a Hindu and Muslim language, with Arabic letters (Urdu)

Muslims and Hindus didn’t get along too well in India.


Akbar eventually took control of the area.He was only 13 but is considered the greatest Mughal ruler.
  • He felt it was impossible to keep his empire united if all people were forced to be Muslims, so people had religious freedom.
  • He even married a Hindu princess and gave important government jobs to Hindus.
  • He did away with the “you’re not a Muslim” tax.
  • He had great military victories, improved trade, made government more efficient, advanced the arts and helped the empire survive for another 150 years.
  • Akbar’s son then ruled for 22 years, and then his grandson (Shah Jahan - 30 more). He also built…




mumtaz mahal
She was the very lady to whom Taj Mahal is dedicated.

The most loved wife of Shah Jahan died after delivering her 14th child.

It is said that Mumtaz Mahal on her deathbed asked Shah Jahan to create a symbol of their love and her loyal husband accepted it immediately.

But many historians do not agree with this story claiming that it was the grief-stricken emperor himself who decided to build the most memorable symbol of love in the world.

It took him 22 years and most of his royal treasury to built a monument befitting the memory of his beloved

Mumtaz Mahal


the actual tombs
The actual tombs of the Shah and his wife rest within the Taj itself. No shoes are allowed so all visitors must take them off and pay a small fee to workers to watch them before they enter. Socks are recommended because the heat of the Indian sun makes the marble feel hotter than a frying pan! The actual tombs



The Taj Mahal

10 Facts about the Taj Mahal


one person who combined hindus and muslims was guru nanak
One person who combined Hindus and Muslims was Guru Nanak
  • He believed all people were brothers and sisters. He condemned all forms of inequality (remember India’s caste system?).
  • Guru Nanak asked his followers – Sikhs (means “disciples / followers”) to find the truth within themselves.
  • At first, everything was peaceful, but later Mughal rulers began to torture and kill Sikhs.
  • Sikhs became more militant (willing to fight) and took the name Singh (means “lion”).



There are three Sikh actions to understanding God:

  • Meditating on God’s name
  • Giving charity
  • Bathing



the mughal empire eventually declined
The Mughal empire eventually declined
  • Akbar’s successor’s didn’t understand how it helped to have Hindus and Muslims get along.
  • One ruler after Shah Jahan even required all people to be Muslims (that didn’t work).
  • They built to big of an empire (too hard to control).
  • European countries began to come to India to trade and eventually began to get more and more power.



While the Mughals ruled in India, the Ottomans and the Safavid Empires dominated the Middle East and parts of Europe.

They wanted to expand their Muslim Empire throughout the Middle East and Europe.


the ottomans expanded their empire and even conquered some byzantine territories
The Ottomans expanded their empire and even conquered some Byzantine territories
  • The Byzantine Empire had been pretty powerful.
  • People thought it couldn’t be attacked ( a big chain kept ships from getting in to the harbor).
  • The Ottoman ruler had his ships taken apart and re-assembled on the other side.
  • The last Byzantine emperor (Constantine XI) was killed and the city fell.


the greatest ottoman sultan was suleiman this was the golden age of the ottomans
The greatest Ottoman sultan was Suleiman(This was the golden age of the Ottomans)
  • Laws were re-written and made more fair.
  • Mosques, schools, baths, hospitals, bridges, and covered markets were built.
  • Most homes had water.
  • Markets sold things from all over the world.
  • Artists, craftspeople and writers developed their skills.



the ottoman s stayed in power until the late 1700 s
The Ottoman’s stayed in power until the late 1700’s
  • When it lost some land to Russia…
  • …and in the 1800’s when Greece won it’s independence.
  • They also lost some territory to France and Great Britain.
  • By 1914 – all gone


the safavid empire lasted in persia from 1501 1722
The Safavid Empire lasted (in Persia) from 1501-1722
  • They were Shiite Muslims who enforced their beliefs throughout their empire.
  • The Ottomans were Sunni Muslims (who hated the Shiites)
  • So there were constant wars between the two.


shah abbas i shah means king
Shah Abbas I…(Shah means king)


  • Was leader at the height of their power.
  • He kept Spain and Portugal out of his empire.
  • Europeans even asked for his help against the Ottomans.
  • Persian culture had a re-birth at the time (paintings, porcelains, cloths, rugs)
  • Improved the capital - Isfahan – with religious monuments, mosques, palaces, gardens, hospitals...
  • Strengthened the military, the government, and Islam.


but shah abbas trusted no one
But Shah Abbas trusted no-one
  • He had his sons blinded and put to death to avoid power struggles.
  • He disguised himself and walked around with regular people to try and find out what was going on – and if they said they had a problem with something, he’d do what he could to help.
  • After he died, there was a struggle between the Sunni and Shiite Muslims.
  • A group of Afghan Sunni Muslims rebelled and captured Isfahan.

8 and 9

Shah Abbas: British exhibition



It’s time to look at the two different sides of the CrusadesWe usually only hear the Western version. Here’s one side (it’s also on the sheet you have):

  • Muslims brought civilization to Jerusalem and all of Palestine. Instead of beliefs that showed no respect for other peoples' sacred values, and which killed them simply out of differences of faith, there reigned the just, tolerant and moderate culture of Islam. Christians and Jews lived together in peace and harmony in Palestine. Muslims never tried to use force to make people convert, although some non-Muslims who saw that Islam was the true religion did so of their own free will.
  • The peace and harmony in Palestine lasted as long as Muslim rule in the region. However, at the end of the 11th century, a conquering force entered the region from abroad, and the civilized land of Jerusalem was barbarically and savagely plundered, in a way never before seen. These barbarians were the Crusaders.

Under Muslim rule, Muslims, Christians and Jews lived together in Jerusalem in contentment and peace.

While members of all three religions were living peaceably together in Palestine, the Christians in Europe decided to organize a crusade. Following a call by Pope Urban II, more than 100,000 people from all over Europe set out for Palestine to free the Holy land from the Muslims and find the fabled wealth of the East. After a long and wearying journey, and much plundering and slaughter along the way, they reached Jerusalem. The city fell after a siege of nearly five weeks, and the Crusaders moved in. And they carried out a savagery the like of which the world has seldom seen. All Muslims and Jews in the city were put to the sword.
  • The peace and harmony in Palestine ended in terrible slaughter. The Crusaders violated all the ethical laws of Christianity, a religion of love and compassion, and spread terror in the name of Christianity.

King Richard ruthlessly executed 3000 Muslim civilians in

the Castle of Acre, among whom were many women and children ...

Saladin and the Muslims in his command treated the Christians with great mercy and justice, and even showed them more compassion than their own leaders had. Not only the Christians but also Jews attained peace and security with the conquest of Jerusalem by Muslims.
  • After Jerusalem, the Crusaders continued their barbarity and the Muslims their justice in other cities in Palestine. In 1194, Richard the Lionheart, who is portrayed as a great hero in British history, had 3,000 Muslims, among whom were many women and children, executed in Castle Acre. Although the Muslims witnessed this savagery, they never resorted to the same methods. They abided by Allah's command "Let not the hatred of a people [who once] obstructed you from the Sacred Mosque lead you to transgress..." 2) and never used violence against innocent civilians. They never employed unnecessary violence, not even against the Crusader armies they defeated.
  • The savagery of the Crusaders and the justice of the Muslims once more revealed a historic truth: An administration built on the principles of Islam allowed people of different faiths to live together. This fact continued to be demonstrated for 700 years after Saladin, particularly during the Ottoman period

Although the Ottoman Empire was a Muslim state, it granted its subjects religious freedom. As seen in this picture, the state protected its citizens in accordance with Muslim moral teaching, providing for its poor no matter what religion they practiced.