Value of a SIPOC • SIPOCs provide an understanding of a process by easily identifying what activities take place in the process, who has a hand in producing the output, who receives the output and how all the various stakeholders measure success. • Identifies all elements of a project as well as refining the project if its not well scoped. • Builds the information to proceed with more detailed mapping & root cause analysis, if warranted and desired
SIPOC Requirements Clearly define the start and stop points Establish key process metrics Identify the components of a process and their owners Identify all the suppliers and their inputs to a process Identify all the customers and the output they receive Establish customer and all stakeholder requirements and how they measure success
Definition of a Process • A process is a group of steps, tasks, or activities that has a beginning and an end. • A process takes inputs, for example materials, information, and people, and in some way changes them to produce an output. • Simply, it can be seen as: input-process-output. Input Process Output
Scheduling production Queuing customer service Repairing or maintaining a product Billing Preparing an annual report Distributing mail Budgeting Entering Orders Answering telephones Communicating Coaching or teaching Examples of Common Processes Every organization has hundreds, if not thousands of work processes. To understand the organization, you must understand its processes! Before you can change a process, you need to describe and characterize it!
Inputs Outputs Process (Added Value) Supplier Customer Activities Requirements and Feedback (Product and Process) Requirements and Feedback (Product and Process) SIPOC Model A SIPOC is a visual view of the Charter that helps to align the team to the project scope and goals
Process Components • Before you begin the task of graphically displaying the structure of your process, take some time to describe the major components of the process in keeping with the fundamental definition of a process. A process has these components: • Boundaries • Activities • Participants • Process Owners • Stakeholders • Customers & Requirements • Outputs • Inputs & Suppliers (continued)
Process Components –cont.Process Boundaries • Boundaries: the start and stop points of the process to be considered for this project team. • The process boundaries determine the scope of your mapping effort, and the project. • Don’t place the boundaries too far apart. • Think about a problem definition and use existing knowledge of the problem to help set these boundaries.
Process Components –cont.Process Activities (or Steps) • Process Activities (or Steps): these are the actual activities taking place within the boundaries. Name all steps taken to convert the inputs into outputs. • You can initially be as detailed as you like. All the steps can be grouped into higher order categories at a later point in time. All that is happening is that you’re naming activities in sub-processes. • Make sure the activities truly lie within the boundaries. If the boundaries are set as a function of the problem statement and you stray outside the boundaries, you are outside the problem statement.
Process Components –cont.Process Participants • Participants: The people who actually perform the tasks of the process. • Every person who plays a role in the conversion of inputs into outputs should be included in your list of participants. In general, you should list participants by name, title, or function. (continued)
Process Components –cont.Process Owners • Process Owner:The person who is ultimately responsible for the process and its output. • In general, process owners are the key decision makers for the process. They allocate and control participants, manage inputs, outputs, and resources, and control most of the financial components of the process. • The process owner is the “voice of the process” and answers to both good and bad performance of the process. (continued)
Process Components –cont.Process Stakeholders • Stakeholders: Individuals or organizations whose success in other areas depends on this process. Any person impacted by the process or the output of the process. Note: The customer may also be considered a Stakeholder (continued)
Process Components –cont.Customers • Customer: The person, persons or organizations that use the output of the process. • The Customer determines the requirements for what would define a successful output. • Customers may be internal or external to your organization. In either case, they generally use your output as an input to one or more of their own processes. • Most important, understand specifically, what it takes to make them happy! (continued)
Process Components –cont.Output Requirements • Requirements: What your customer needs, wants, or expects of your output. • In general, customers want three things of your output. • They want it better, faster, and cheaper • Requirement should be specific and measurable (continued)
Process Components –cont.Process Outputs • Output: The tangible product or intangible service that is created by the process and passed on to the customer. • Outputs have two components that can be described by a noun and a verb: A “thing” is “done”. • Applications have been processed. • Machines have been repaired. • Ore has been mined. • By expressing your outputs in a noun and verb format, you are forced to look at both the end product and the actions that are required to make it happen. (continued)
Process Components –cont.Process Inputs and Suppliers • Inputs: The materials, equipment, information, people, money, or other conditions that are required to perform the process. • Suppliers: The people, functions, or organizations who supply the process with its inputs. (continued)
Diagram the Process - Block Diagrams • A block diagram is the simplest type of process map. It provides a quick and uncomplicated view of the process. • Only rectangles for major process steps and diamonds for major decision points connected by lines with arrows are used in this type of map. The arrows indicate direction of flow. • Use block diagrams to simplify large and complex processes.
Diagram the Process - Block Diagrams Block Diagram Example • The block diagram below outlines the general structure of a travel vacation: • Within each block, there are many more activities. • Block diagrams do not generally provide enough detail for problem-solving. Use them only to help guide you towards the identification of your process boundaries. SelectDestination andBuy Tickets Travel toDestination Relax andSee Sights TravelHome
Inputs Outputs Process (Added Value) Supplier Customer Activities Requirements and Feedback (Product and Process) Requirements and Feedback (Product and Process) Basic Steps to Build a SIPOC (continued)
Basic Steps to Build a SIPOC –cont. • Name it - Define process to be reviewed • Bound-it – Define the process start and stop points • Identify the process owner • Identify the process output(s) • Identify the process customer(s) • Identify the customers’ requirements for the each output. • Identify the process inputs • Identify suppliers who provide the inputs • Brainstorm process steps • Organize process steps in sequence • Number steps • Validate the process with a “walk through" of the actual process. (continued)
Basic Steps to Build a SIPOC –cont. 1 Process Name Process Owner 2 Suppliers Inputs Outputs Customers Requirements 8 7 4 5 6 Start Stop 3 9,10,11, 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 3 Constructing the SIPOC in this specific order will greatly facilitate the teams ease with this task
Buy Tickets Travel toDestination Relax andSee Sights TravelHome SelectDestination Example SIPOC Vacation Process Process Owner: C Pacheco Customer/ Requirements Suppliers Inputs Process Output Start Decideto take a trip Airlines Hotels Tour providers Cruise line Trip information Completed trip Satisfied customer Travel dates Trip budget Stop Arrive Home
Summary • A SIPOC defines the process at a high level and identifies key components: Supplier – Whoever provides the input to your process Input – The material or data that a process does something to or with Process – The activities you must perform to satisfy your customer’s requirements Output – The material or data that results from the operation of the process Customer – Whoever receives the output of your process • A SIPOC is used ensure all variables related to the problem statement are considered.
SIPOC Diagram Example #1a Insert Process Step 1 Insert Process Step 2 Insert Process Step 3 Insert Process Step 4 Insert Process Step 5