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Constructing Regional Advantage The Austrian Case. Lukas Lengauer Michaela Trippl Franz Tödtling Institute for Regional Development and Environment Vienna University of Economics and Business Administration. I. INTRODUCTION. Core Objective of the Austrian team: .

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Constructing Regional AdvantageThe Austrian Case

Lukas Lengauer

Michaela Trippl

Franz Tödtling

Institute for Regional Development and Environment

Vienna University of Economics and Business Administration

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I. INTRODUCTION

Core Objective of the Austrian team:

  • Analysis of Austrian policy approaches to support ICT related clusters and activities in three different type of RIS
  • Vienna: fragmented metropolitan RIS
  • Upper Austria: networked RIS
  • Salzburg: organisationally thin RIS
  • All three regions (NUTS 2 regions) investigated have the status of a „Bundesland“:  formal competencies for economic and innovation policies

Steps done so far:

  • first analysis of structuring of RIS Vienna, Upper Austria and Salzburg
  • first comparison of regions

Methodology:

  • desktop research & analysis of documents
  • use of secondary data (firm census 2001)
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II. SOCIO-ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS AND INNOVATION PERFORMANCE OF REGIONS

Source: Statistics Austria

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R&D Expenditures 2004

Source: Statistics Austria

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Innovation performance

Source: European Innovation Scoreboard 2006

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III. RIS VIENNA

1. SUBSYSTEM OF KNOWLEGE GENERATION AND DIFFUSION

Main actors:

  • nine universities 127.448 students (2006), 11.232 graduates (2005)
  • 900 other ROs
  • technical colleges 11.232 students (2006), 1.366 graduates (2005) 60 degree programmes
  • one academic spin-off centre
  • eight technology centres

RIS VIENNA

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ICT – Knowledge generation and diffusion I

  • Universities:
  • Technical University of Vienna (faculty of electrical engineering and information technology),
  • University of Vienna (faculty of computer sciences)
  • Medical University of Vienna (Section of Medical Computer Vision, excellence centre telemedicine)
  • Non-academic research institutes:
  • Austrian Research Institute for Artificial Intelligence (OFAI)
  • Seibersdorf Research (medical informatics)
  • Co-operative research institutes:
  • Advanced Computer Vision
  • Telecommunications Research Centre Vienna
  • Centre for virtual reality and visualisation
  • E-Commerce Competence Centre
  • Compilation Techniques for Embedded Processors
  • Design Methodology of Signal Processing Algorithms
  • Spatial Data from Laser Scanning and Remote Sensing
  • CAD technology in microelectronics

RIS VIENNA

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ICT – Knowledge generation and diffusion II

  • Technical Colleges:
  • 10 degree programmes in software and informatics
  • 7 degree programmes in communication systems, and automation
  • Technology centres, technology parks, incubators:
  • Academic Spin Off Centre INITS (specific focus on ICT)
  • Business and Research Centre Höchststädtplatz (BRC)
  • Tech Gate Vienna

 Strong presence of universities, research organisations, educational bodies

RIS VIENNA

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2. SUBSYSTEM OF KNOWLEDGE APPLICATION AND EXPLOITATION

ICT – knowledge application and exploitation I

Number of plants:5.928 (33 % of the Austrian total)

Growth rate: + 117 %

Employees:79.296 (25 % of the Austrian total)

Growth rate: + 31 %

  • Leading subsectors:Employees
  • Telecommunications: 13.989
  • Software consultancy and supply: 12.191
  • Man. of television and radio transmittors: 11.938
  • Wholesale of computers and software: 11.023

LQs > 1 for 15 of 19 subsectors

RIS VIENNA

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ICT – knowledge application and exploitation II

 Leading centre of Austrian ICT industry

Source: Statistics Austria

RIS VIENNA

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3. POLICY SYSTEM

Key actors:

Policy measures / instruments

City government

  • development of strategies
  • information about technological fields

MA 27 EU strategy and economic development

Vienna Business Agency (VBA)

  • broad bundle of funding and support measures for firms
  • attraction of FDI

Centre f. Innovation & Technology (ZIT)

  • Focus on firms
  • calls: funding of projects
  • promotion of UIP
  • awarness raising, etc.

Vienna Science and Technology Fund (WWTF)

  • Focus on ROs
  • calls: funding of projects
  • establishment of endowed chairs within thematic programmes

RIS VIENNA

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ICT - Policies

  • Innovation & technology policy: focus on specific clusters
  • ICT as on strategic policy priority
  • Combination of traditional instruments (e.g. funding) & modern tools (e.g. stimulation of networks)

Actor:

Policy measures / instruments

Centre f. Innovation & Technology (ZIT)

  • ICT Calls: funding of R&D in firms

Vienna Science and Technology Fund (WWTF)

  • ICT calls: financial support to ROs
  • endowed chair for bioinformatics

Vienna Business Agency (VBA)

  • Cluster initiative: „Vienna IT Enterprises“ – Management Unit
  • provision of information (e.g. about funding opportunities) and counselling services (e.g. legal advise)
  • stimulation of co-operation
  • Provision of infrastructure: setting up of technology park: BRC

RIS VIENNA

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IV. RIS UPPER AUSTRIA

1. SUBSYSTEM OF KNOWLEGE GENERATION AND DIFFUSION

Main actors:

  • two universities 12.991 students (2006), 1.251 graduates (2005)
  • technical colleges 3.742 students (2006), 804 graduates (2005) 32 degree programmes
  • 22 technology centres

RIS UPPER AUSTRIA

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ICT – Knowledge generation and diffusion I

  • Universities:
  • Johannes Kepler University Linz (various institutes)
  • Non-academic research institutes:
  • Johann Radon Institute for Computational and Applied Mathematics (Austrian Academy of Science)
  • Profactor
  • Upper Austrian Research
  • Co-operative research institutes:
  • Software Competence Center Hagenberg
  • Linz Center of Competence in Mechatronics
  • Automated Software Engineering
  • Integrated Radar Sensores
  • Technical Colleges:
  • 11 degree programmes in software and informatics
  • 2 degree programmes in electronics, communication systems, and automation

RIS UPPER AUSTRIA

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ICT – Knowledge generation and diffusion II

  • Technology centres, technology parks, incubators: SOFTWARE PARK HAGENBERG
  • 40 companies
  • 4 university institutes
  • Competence Center Hagenberg,
  • Upper Austrian Resarch (Dep. F. medicine informatics)
  • Research Center Hagenberg
  • Hagenberg Technical College (10 degree programmes)

 In general: weak capacity of knowledge generation and diffusion – some strengths in selected areas

RIS UPPER AUSTRIA

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2. SUBSYSTEM OF KNOWLEDGE APPLICATION AND EXPLOITATION

ICT – knowledge application and exploitation I

Number of plants:2.271 (15 % of the Austrian total)

Growth rate: + 129 %

Employees:17.713 (11 % of the Austrian total)

Growth rate: + 43 %

  • Leading subsectors: Employees
  • Wholesale of computers and software: 4.053
  • Software consultancy and supply: 2.757
  • Data processing: 2.601
  • Telecommunications: 2.395

LQs > 1 for 3 of 19 subsectors

RIS UPPER AUSTRIA

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ICT – knowledge application and exploitation II

 Weak capacity to apply and exploit knowledge

Source: Statistics Austria

RIS UPPER AUSTRIA

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3. POLICY SYSTEM

Key actors:

Policy measures / instruments

Regional government (Dep. for Industry, Dep. for Education

Upper Austrian Research and Technology Council

  • Advisory function for the regional government

Technologie- und Marketinggesellschaft (TMG)

  • Design of innovation and location policy
  • Cluster promotion and network initiatives (funding of innovation networks between firms, , UIPs)
  • Location marketing
  • One stop shop for regional, national and international technology funding
  • Programme „TIM“: advice and management activities for innovation projects
  • Programme „Innovation Assistant“

CATT Innovation Management

RIS UPPER AUSTRIA

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ICT - Policies

  • Economic, innovation & technology policies: explicit cluster approach (automotive, plastics, etc.)
  • no cluster initiative in the field of ICT – ICT as cross-sectional area (related variety ?)
  • Software Park Hagenberg

RIS UPPER AUSTRIA

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V. RIS SALZBURG

1. SUBSYSTEM OF KNOWLEGE GENERATION AND DIFFUSION

Main actors:

  • two universities
  • technical colleges
  • one academic spin-off centre
  • seven technology centres

12.979 students (2006), 1.722 graduates (2005)

1.876 students (2006), 311 graduates (2005) 14 degree progammes

RIS SALZBURG

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ICT – Knowledge generation and diffusion

  • Universities:
  • University of Salzburg (Centre for Geoinformatics)
  • Non-academic research institutes:
  • Salzburg Resarch
  • Institute for Geographical Information Systems (Austrian Academy of Sciences)
  • Co-operative research institutes:
  • ANET Salzburg
  • Salzburg NewMediaLab
  • CD Lab for Embedded Software Systems
  • Technology Centres:
  • Techno-Z Salzburg (specialised on ICT)
  • three other centres with some focus on ICT related topics

 Weak endowment with research & education institutes and transfer agencies – concentration on a few selected areas

RIS SALZBURG

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2. SUBSYSTEM OF KNOWLEDGE APPLICATION AND EXPLOITATION

ICT – knowledge application and exploitation I

Number of plants:1.173 (7 % of the Austrian total)

Growth rate: + 104 %

Employees:8.459 (5 % of the Austrian total)

Growth rate: + 47 %

  • Leading subsectors:Employees
  • Wholesale of other office machinery and equipment: 1.840
  • Software consultancy and supply: 1.151
  • Telecommunications: 1.149
  • Data processing: 8.67

LQs > 1 for 5 of 19 subsectors

RIS SALZBURG

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ICT – knowledge application and exploitationII

 Weak capacity to apply and exploit knowledge

Source: Statistics Austria

RIS SALZBURG

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3. POLICY SYSTEM

Key actors:

Policy measures / instruments

Regional government (Dep. for Universities, Dep. for Economy, Tourism

Council for Science and Research

  • Advisory function for the regional government

Innovations- und Technologietransfer-gesellschaft (ITG)

  • provision of information and counselling activities about EU framework programme
  • promotion of UIP, knowledge transfer, innovation networks

Chamber of Commerce

  • Programme „Innovation Service“ (counselling)
  • External research and funding coaches: support for innovation projects to firms

RIS SALZBURG

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ICT - Policies

  • Cluster and innovation policy: strongly bottom-up
  • cluster and network projects: wood, design & media
  • in the past: GIS cluster (network in disolution)
  • Focus on application of ICT (e.g. in tourism) – related variety ?
  • Overcoming weaknesses by institutional networking (with other provinces, national actors) ?

RIS SALZBURG

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VI. COMPARING THE REGIONS

Vienna

  • Well endowed with universities, ROs, educational bodies, etc.  Austria‘s scientific ICT centre
  • Strong concentration of ICT plants and firms; high LQs for many ICT subsectors  key location for the Austrian ICT industry
  • Comprehensive set of policy measures to promote ICT cluster
  • Problem: fragmented nature of RIS: mainly informal networking within cluster, lack of global pipelines

Upper Austria

  • Presence of ROs with ICT competencies in specific fields
  • Weak concentration of ICT plants, ICT firms; low LQs for many ICT subsectors
  • Policy Approach: creating islands of software production (Hagenberg) & ICT as cross sectional area – related variety ?

Salzburg

  • Weak endowment with ICT research capacity – concentration on specific fields
  • Weak concentration of ICT plants, ICT firms; low LQs for many ICT subsectors
  • Policy Approach: focus on selected areas (e.g. media, GIS) – focus on application (e.g. tourism) – bottom up principle dominates