Athens Olympics WI QF 1 point Lee- Wu QF 2 point Yuan - Yun GM 2 point Park - Lee WT QF 1 point 1ND - FRA QF 3 point TPE - GER SF 4 point TPE - CHN GM 1 point KOR - CHN MI QF 1 point Im - Yamamoto QF 1 point Galliaggo - Wonderee QF 1 point Cuddihy - Im QF 2 point Godfrey - Chen SF 0 point Yamamoto - Cuddihy SF 2 point Galliaggo - Godfrey GM 2 point Galliaggo - Yamamoto BM 1 point Cuddhy - Godfrey MT QF 1 point KOR - NED QF 3 point TPE - AUS SF 3 point KOR - UKR SF 1 point TPE - USA BM 2 point UKR - USA
Cognitive and Behavioral Strategies for Staying Focused during Competition in the Elite Archers Um, Sung-Ho University of Ulsan, Korea
According to the classification of sports by • Gandlsman and smirnov(1971) • There are 7 categories base on the specific • performance nature of sports. • All voluntary sports activity is performed in coordination • with complicated muscle contractions in static and • Dynamic state. • Especially archery and shooting has the characteristics • of less vigorouse muscle contration action.
However this 2 sports demand the coordination of fine • muscles and mainly related to regulate the stress and • to control mental state and endurance during the • competition. • Archery shooting skill is self-paled or closed skill. • Archers must have the mental and psychological skills • for the success of the competition.
Psychological contributions • Each sports is unique. • Each sports make special demand on athletes. • Consequently , the psychological approaches associated with proficiency in each sport must be specifically identified. • And they need to be developed effectively. But there are problems or considerations in common associated with just about every form of competition.
The following are typical concerns associated with thoughts and feeling(cognitions)as expressed by many athletes. ① how to deal with anxiety before an event. ② how to sustain motivation for practice session and competitive event. ③ how to deal with setbacks after less than ideal performances. ④ how to learn how to focus attention effectively.
⑤ how to develop and know when to habit - like or adaptive behaviors. ⑥ how to prepare mentally for an event or competition. ⑦ how to control and direct emotions during the performance during the competitive situations. ⑧ how to maintain competitive intensity. • Being able to resolve these and related concerns permits on athlete to come closer to the realization of skilled performance. • It’s all part of the mental and emotional preparation for sport and exhibition of performance.
Characteristics of Elite Archers Are successful archer distinguished by certain key personality characteristics? What motivates athletes to participate in archery competition? Why are some archers so motivated to achieve competitive success, whereas others dread the mere thought of competition? How does one psych up for optimal performance without psyching out.
These are some of the important questions addressed at the first stop to understanding archery sports and archers behavior during the competition. And this part focuses on personal factors – personality characteristics, individual orientations and emotions that affect performance and psychological mental status in archery shooting.
Visualization • See myself • individualized visualization process - What you see, usually what you get. - I could see my shooting good form and good technique. - visualize perfect routine. - visualization - key world(positive things in there) - How do you get the visual. - What's gonna do now?
- Visualization in shooting. 1. closed eyes and shooting. 2. Pre-shooting • picturing my match. • every thing is already seen. 3. before the sleeping ․ competition situation ․ see my self ․ goal setting ․ visualize the success 4. skills to be refined 10 - 15 min/day
- When visualization is needed 1. practice session 2. new skill training 3. correction new skills
Source of Stress and Anxiety In athletes, stressors include worry about performing up to capabilities, financial cost and time needed for training, self- doubt about talent, and relationships or traumatic experience outside of sports such as the daily life affairs. These thousands of specific stress sources fall into some general categories determined by both situational and personality.
1. Situational Source of Stress a) importance placed on an event or contest. b) the uncertainity that surround the outcome of the event. 2. Personal Source of Stress a) trait anxiety a personality factor that predisposes a person to view competition and social evaluation as more or less threatening. b) Self-esteen c) Social physique anxiety
Coping with Adversity Coping : as a to manage specific external and/or internal demands or process of constantly changing cognitive and behavioral efforts conflicts appraised as faxing or exceeding one's resources. ∘ Athletes should learn a broad spectrum of coping stratergies to use in different situations and different source of stress. ∘ problem - focused coping → information, goal setting. emotion - focused coping → regulating emotional factors.
On-site Relaxation Tips 1. Smile when you feel tension coming on. 2. Have fun - enjoy the situation. 3. Set up stressful situations in practice. 4. Slow down, take your time. 5. Stay focused on the present moment. 6. Come prepared with good game plan.
Arousal - inducing technique 1. Increased breathing rate. 2. Act energized. 3. Use mood words and positive statement. 4. Listen to music. 5. Use energizing imagery. 6. Complete a precompetitive work out.
RELAXATION Ⅰ. WHAT IS RELAXATION ? Relaxation is a state where one is physically and mentally free from controlled tension, anxiety and thoughts. It is characterized by feelings of ease, looseness, tranquility and rest. Ⅱ. PURPOSES OF RELAXATION TRAINING A. Physiological Calming of Body B. Attentional Shift from Anxiety Provoking Thoughts to a Relaxation Set Ⅲ. WHY LEARN RELAXATION TRAINING ? A. Arousal Control B. Basic Skill for Image Training C. Health Benefits
Ⅳ. LEARNING TO RELAX A. Phases In Relaxation Training 1. Phase 1: Tense-Relax Cycle--tense and relax various muscle groups throughout the body focusing on the feelings associated with tensed and relaxed states/Time (7-10 days; 20mins. aday) 2.Phase 2: Relaxation only Cycle--relax muscle groups individually without tensing. Begin to use a cue word or symbol to signal relaxation (e.g., relax)/Time (7-10 days).
3.Phase 3: Full-Speed Relaxation--begin to add speed by learning to relax the individual muscle groups more quickly. The ultimate goal is to learn to relax deeply in the time it requires to take a deep breathe, inhale and exhale slowly 20 times a day. 4. Phase 4: Utilization Stage--begin to use relaxation in anxiety provoking conditions. Practice first under low stress conditions employ relaxation under highly stressful condition.
B. Creating The Right Physical And Mental Climate (Common Elements In All Relaxation Response Programs) 1. A Quiet Environment 2. A Comfortable Position 3. A Mental Device or Cue 4. A Passive Attitude
C. Basic Relaxation Training Principles 1. Number of muscle groups involved (see attached) ⅰ. 16 ⅱ. 07 ⅲ. 04 2. Key points to remember ⅰ. when learning relaxation focus on the differences between tension and relaxation ⅱ. relaxation is a skill - it must be practiced regularly if it is to be learned.
ⅲ. overshoot principle - tense the muscle and then relax below previous level ⅳ. you cannot force yourself to relax - you must let it happen. ⅴ. breathe through your nose as you breathe out, say the word "relax" silently to yourself ⅵ. if you hear noises while relaxing don't try to block them out - instead focus on your breathing ⅶ. in sport, relaxation is typically used in conjunction with other psychological skills like imagery .
Ⅴ. SUMMARY Relaxation is an effective psychological tool for all athletes to develop. Moreover, although there are many different relaxation programs, they all follow the same basic principles.
CENTERING FOR ATHLETIC SUCCESS Centering is a mental focusing technique which was originated from oriental principles and has been found to be very useful for athletes in a variety of sports. It is briefly described below.
Ⅰ. WHAT IS CENTERING? Centering is a method of focusing one's attention on one point by directing thoughts toward the center of the body. It is designed to allow an athlete to clear his or her head of distracting thoughts and reduce unwanted muscular tension. It can be executed at time and only takes a few seconds to complete.
Ⅱ. CENTERING STEPS Step 1 : Assume a good athletic stance with kness bent and feet shoulder width apart. Step 2 : Slowly inhale trhrough the nose and fill your stomach/abdomen (not chest) with air. Think of a point behind your navel and say "center" to yourself and you inhale. Step 3 : Slowly exhale through your mouth and consciously relax your muscles. Say the word "focus" or "relax“ to yourself as you exhale and let your body go loose. Step 4: Initiate action.
Ⅲ. PHASES IN CENTERING TRAINING Phase 1 : Progressive Relaxation And Breathing Skills. Along with relaxation training, spend some time focusing on the easy, natural rise and fall of the stomach as you breathe. Let the stomach muscles totally relax. Proper breathing comes from the diaphram, not the chest ( 5 minutes a day with relaxation training).
Phase 2 : Breathing Skills and Centering For Attention. Practice centering without the five minute progressive relaxation. Do 20 to 30 times a day. Breathe In (nose) Breathe out (mouth) "Center" ------------- "Relax" -------- "Focus Attention" Phase 3 : Centering During Workouts and Competitions. Practice centering between run through, drills, etc. Later, make it a habit to center each time you begin action.
Ⅳ. WHEN TO CENTER 1. When frustrated with yourself or some one else. 2. Immediately prior to the beginning of a match or event. 3. Immediately following a momentary loss of control (a mistake, error, etc.)
Ⅴ. CENTERING REMINDERS Centering is not magical. It is a learned psychological skill which if it is to be used effectively must be practiced. Since it only requires a few seconds to execute, athletes should center 10 to 20 times at various points in practice or competition.
Ⅵ.APPLYING RELAXATION, CENTERING AND IMAGERY TO NONATHLETIC SITUATIONS 1. Use to calm athletes down while traveling. 2. Use before bed, to help the one get to sleep. 3. Imagine future situation - work through tough situations before you are in them. 4. Archers can use these skills to calm themselves down in frustrating situations. 5. Use before taking important event. 6. Confidence in relaxation can help one feel good and believe in themsleves.
Ⅰ. Introduction • Archery competition in the major International event became more competitive. • The FITA Olympic Round which all the matches are competed face to face shooting format. • This new shooting process affect archer’s shooting skills as well as mental aspect.
How the archer feel and concentrate during the competitive situation is the most decisive factions in winning. • Inquires regarding archery training and performing strategies of • top archers. • Detailed information on cognitive and behavioral strategies: • feelings, thoughts and behaviors • Elite archer's practice and competition routines would • provide valuable mental training guidelines for other archers.
Archery shooting requires concentration of high intensity. A single error in shooting might lead to significant impacts on the performance outcome and psychological states of the archer. In an important event, many external factors including spectators and reporters create additional distraction. Archers are trained in order to cope with the external factors that distract concentration in competition. Ability to concentrate or stay focused in competition is a main psychological skill.
Psychological skills in sports are defined as diverse strategies used to overcome stress in competition. • Psychological skills in sports include concentration, motivation, • imagery, confidence, anxiety regulation, goal setting, and • discriminate successful athletes. • Concentration is a major psychological skill which discriminates • successful athletes.
In archery, concentration is even more important because of the very nature of the sport. • Athletes in all sports employ cognitive and behavioral strategies differently to maintain concentration during competition. • Ability to concentrate is one of the characteristics of elite archers. • Elite athletes have provided evidence that they use positive • imagery, self-talk, and maintain positive attitudes throughout the • event.
The purpose of the study were : 1) To assess the elite archers’ perception of the importance of concentration. 2) To assess their actual ability to regulate the perceived concentration. 3) To examine cognitive and behavioral strategies frequently employed during the archery competition.
Ⅱ. Method • Participants • A total of 63 elite Korean archers (37 males and 26 females). • Participated in the National Sports Festival (2001) Archery Competition. • Participants had the mean experience of 12years • ( ranging from 5 to 22 years ).
Qualification Round mean score 1348.9 points (possible 1440 points). Olympic Round Elimination Match 18 shots : 172.0 points (possible 180 points). Olympic Round Final Match 12shots : 115.2 points (possible 120 points). Standard deviation for their scores was very low. Indicating that they were homogeneous.
Measures • Questionnaire for the study: • • first section : demographic information (years of experience, • best scores, training hours, psychological training • hours). • • second section : perceptions of concentration and actual ability • to regulate concentration (14 factors were • identified). • • third section : open-ended questions to identify cognitive and • behavioral strategies the athletes employed for • maintaining concentration.
Data analysis Means and standard deviation were calculated for 14 factors. Responses on the open-ended questions were analyzed. Raw data were classified according to similarities in meaning and grouped into major categories.
Ⅲ. Results • Importance of Concentration • The archers felt that concentration were the second most important mental factors in competition ( mean 9.29 on 10-points scale ). • Self-confidence was ranked at the top ( mean 9.45 ). • Self-management (mean 9.03)and mental toughness (mean 8.92) appeared more important.
These findings suggest the need for the importance of concentration during competition. • Self-confidence and self-management should be included in • psychological training.
Concentration Strategies during Competition While waiting on the shooting line 113 responses were grouped into 8 categories. • confidence enhancing behaviors were most frequently mentioned.(36%) - self-talk - fighting - go for it - thoughts about doing one's best
• Imagery-related behaviors (15%) - doing imagery - think about successful performance • Calmness and relaxation (15%) - deep breathing - stretching - checking equipment and focusing on a specific object
While aiming and shooting Confidence related responses for concentration (40%) - shooting with confidence - confidence enhancing behaviors - doing one's best Other categories - rhythm and kinesthetic senses - timing while aiming and shooting - focusing on targets - thinking posture - thinking nothing - thinking positive outcomes
While playing behind opponents Tend to be under pressure. Elite archer exhibited positive attitude. Doing one's best was the most important theme. Trying their best with success in the mind. Others included confidence, relaxed state and focusing on posture.
While leading 7 categories emerged from 70 responses. frequently employed were - playing just like now. - doing one's best. - shooting in calmness. - thinking about posture.
After competition After competition, archers tended to reflect on previous competition and prepare for next competition.(38%) - self-reflection - finding weakness - checking posture and forms. Try to motivate to psychologically prepare for upcoming event.(23%) Accepting outcome positively. Regrets. Feeling of confidence. Images of competition.