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Organic Compounds. Ag Biology. PLAY. Organic Compounds/Macromolecules. All contain carbon Carbon forms strong covalent bonds Carbon forms chains Carbon forms single, double, and triple bonds Carbon makes rings CO 2 , not organic. PLAY. 5-carbon ring. 3-carbon ring. 4-carbon ring.

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organic compounds

Organic Compounds

Ag Biology


organic compounds macromolecules
Organic Compounds/Macromolecules
  • All contain carbon
  • Carbon forms strong covalent bonds
  • Carbon forms chains
  • Carbon forms single, double, and triple bonds
  • Carbon makes rings
  • CO2, not organic


5-carbon ring

3-carbon ring

4-carbon ring


Carbon compounds from chemical bonds through polymerization.

  • Polymers are made of individual monomers.
  • Monomer + monomer = polymer
  • Polymers bond together to make macromolecules.
  • There are 4 organic compounds (macromolecules) essential to life.
  • Living things use carbs as their main source of energy; plants and some animals use it for structural purposes.
  • Consist of C, H, O (2 H for every O)
  • Simple carbs are called monosaccharides.
  • Ex: glucose is sugar from plants, galactose is sugar from milk, fructose is sugar from fruits.
  • All three are C6H12O6, but are arranged differently.

Many monosaccharides will bond together to make a polysaccharide. A monosaccharide is the basic subunit of carbohydrates.

  • Starch is a polysaccharide where plants store their energy.
  • Glycogen is a polysaccharide where animals store their energy.
  • Monosaccharides are bonded through a process called dehydration synthesis.
  • The process involves the removal of a water molecule to bring two monosaccharides together.
  • The opposite effect (splitting a disaccharide or polysaccharide by adding water) is called hydrolysis.
  • Waxy, oily, fats
  • Lipids have three roles:

1. store energy

2. form membranes

3. act as chemical messengers

They are formed through combinations of fatty acids and fatty glycerol.

Fatty acids are long chains of carbon and hydrogen with a carboxyl group at the end (-COOH).

Glycerol is made up of three carbons each attached to a OH- group.

They get combined through dehydration synthesis.


Saturated fats have the maximum number of hydrogens; the molecule has no double bonds.

Unsaturated fats have double bonds, therefore they do not have the maximum number of hydrogens.


Lipids make up liposomes.

  • Liposomes are the basic structure of the phospholipids, which make up the cell membrane = lipid by-layer.
  • Contains C, H, N, O, P
  • amino acids (monomers)
  • Amino acid + amino acid = protein
  • Proteins are very diverse molecules
  • More than 20 amino acids are found in nature
  • Functions are:

1. control reaction rates/cell processes

2. form bones and muscles

3. transport stuff in/out of cell

4. fight disease

protein structure
Protein Structure
  • Amino acid molecule has an “amino group” (NH2) on one end and the “carboxyl Group” (-COOH) on the other end.


The R-group defines the actual amino acid.







Amino Acids form bonds with each other through dehydration synthesis.

  • Long chains are created.
  • Levels of organization:

1. amino acids  protein chain

2. the chain twists

3. the chain folds

4. protein; a complete protein has 1 or more polypeptide chains.


Enzymes are made of protein.

  • Chemical reactions make life/life functions possible.
  • Reactions are sped up by catalysts.
  • Catalysts start reactions, they are never used up, and work by lowering the start-up energy required by the reaction  makes life more efficient.
  • Enzymes accelerate reaction. Ex: 1500 yrs. = 5 seconds.
  • A simple cell has 2000 enzymes for basic reactions.
how do enzymes work
How do enzymes work?
  • Enzymes bind to the reactants of a chemical reaction reactants are called substrates.
  • They bind at the active site.
  • They will then either position themselves to begin the reaction OR they may twist the molecule of the substrate and breaks the bonds of the molecules.
  • Enzymes are specific to each reaction! They fit like puzzle pieces.


nucleic acids dna rna
Nucleic Acids (DNA & RNA)
  • Made up of C, H, O, N, and P.
  • DNA & RNA
  • DNA: deoxyribonucleic acids.
  • RNA: ribonucleic acids.
  • Subunits (monomers) are called nucleotides.
  • Nucleotide Structure:

5-carbon sugar

phosphate group

nitrogen base