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Reading assignments: biological control . van Klinken, R. and Raghu, S. 2006. A scientific approach to agent selection. Australian Journal of Entomology 45 : 253-258.

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Reading assignments biological control
Reading assignments: biological control

  • van Klinken, R. and Raghu, S. 2006. A scientific approach to agent selection. Australian Journal of Entomology 45: 253-258.

  • Denslow, J., and D’Antonio, C. 2005. After bio-control: assessing indirect effects of insect releases. Biological Control 35:307-318.

  • Kirby et al. 2000. Biological control of leafy spurge with introduced flea beetles (Apthona spp.). Journal of Range Management 53(3): 305-308.


Reading assignments biological control

  • Biological methods

  • Least public opposition

  • Number of success stories

  • Difficulty locating enemy

  • Non-target effects

    • Most likely a problem when the invasive species has closely related plants in the invaded area

    • Monitor non-targets


Reading assignments biological control

  • Biological methods: How to implement?

    • Identify appropriate target weeds


Reading assignments biological control

  • Biological methods: How to implement?

    • Identify appropriate target weeds

      • Agricultural impact

      • Impact to natural areas

      • Toxicity

      • Beneficial characteristics

      • Relatedness to native species

      • Origin

      • Extent of invasion


Reading assignments biological control

  • Biological methods: How to implement?

    • Identify appropriate target weeds

      • Agricultural impact

      • Impact to natural areas

      • Toxicity

      • Beneficial characteristics

      • Relatedness to native species

      • Origin

      • Extent of invasion

      • McClay, A. S. 1989. Selection of suitable target weeds for classical biological control in Alberta.  AECV89-RI. Alberta Environmental Centre, Vegreville, Alberta, Canada.


Reading assignments biological control

  • Biological methods: How to implement?

    • Identify appropriate target weeds

      • Agricultural impact

      • Impact to natural areas

      • Toxicity

      • Beneficial characteristics

      • Relatedness to native species

      • Origin

      • Extent of invasion

      • McClay, A. S. 1989. Selection of suitable target weeds for classical biological control in Alberta.  AECV89-RI. Alberta Environmental Centre, Vegreville, Alberta, Canada.

      • Peschken, D. P and A. S. McClay. 1995. Picking the target – a revision of McClay’s scoring system to determine the suitability of a weed for classical biological control, pp. 137-143. In Delfosse E. S. and R. R. Scott (eds.). Proceedings of the VIIIth International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds, Canterbury NZ.


Reading assignments biological control

  • Biological methods: How to implement?

    • Identify appropriate target weeds

      • McClay (1989) and Peschken & McClay (1995) use a scoring system to rate weeds for biocontrol priority.

      • economic losses (light to very severe) 0-30 pts

        • Additional points:

          • Size of the infested area

          • expected spread

          • Toxicity

          • Available means of control

          • Economic justification.


Reading assignments biological control

  • Biological methods: How to implement?

    • Identify appropriate target weeds

      • McClay (1989) and Peschken & McClay (1995) use a scoring system to rate weeds for biocontrol priority.

      • economic losses

      • Biological elements

        • Geographic origin: more points for non-US weeds


Reading assignments biological control

  • Biological methods: How to implement?

    • Identify appropriate target weeds

      • McClay (1989) and Peschken & McClay (1995) use a scoring system to rate weeds for biocontrol priority.

      • economic losses

      • Biological elements

        • Geographic origin: more points for non-N. Am. weeds

        • Habitat stability: more points for stable habitats (rangelands VS croplands)


Reading assignments biological control

  • Biological methods: How to implement?

    • Identify appropriate target weeds

      • McClay (1989) and Peschken & McClay (1995) use a scoring system to rate weeds for biocontrol priority.

      • economic losses

      • Biological elements

        • Geographic origin: more points for non-N. Am. weeds

        • Habitat stability: more points for stable habitats (rangelands VS croplands)

        • Points added for absence of close native relatives


Reading assignments biological control

  • Biological methods: How to implement?

    • Identify appropriate target weeds

      • McClay (1989) and Peschken & McClay (1995) use a scoring system to rate weeds for biocontrol priority.

      • economic losses

      • Biological elements

        • Geographic origin: more points for non-N. Am. weeds

        • Habitat stability: more points for stable habitats (rangelands VS croplands)

        • Points added for absence of close native relatives


Reading assignments biological control

  • Biological methods: How to implement?

    • Identify appropriate target weeds

      • McClay (1989) and Peschken & McClay (1995) use a scoring system to rate weeds for biocontrol priority.

      • economic losses

      • Biological elements

      • Other means: decision of scientists, survey of land managers and weed biologists, political pressures, perceived need, mandate in legislation


Reading assignments biological control

  • Biological methods: How to implement?

    • Identify appropriate target weeds

    • Identify possible bio-control agents


Reading assignments biological control

  • Biological methods: How to implement?

    • Identify appropriate target weeds

    • Identify possible bio-control agents

    • Example: USDA ARS project: South American Biological Control Agents to Suppress Invasive Pests in the U.S. began Nov 8 2005. Project Number: 0211-22000-006-00


Reading assignments biological control

  • Biological methods: How to implement?

    • Identify appropriate target weeds

    • Identify possible bio-control agents

    • Example: USDA ARS project: South American Biological Control Agents to Suppress Invasive Pests in the U.S. began Nov 8 2005

    • Targets include: Tropical Soda Apple (Solanum viarum), Water-hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), Brazilian Peppertree (Schinus terebenthifolius)


Reading assignments biological control

  • Biological methods: How to implement?

    • Identify appropriate target weeds

    • Identify possible bio-control agents

    • Example: USDA ARS project: South American Biological Control Agents to Suppress Invasive Pests in the U.S. began Nov 8 2005

    • Targets include: Tropical Soda Apple (Solanum viarum), Water-hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), Brazilian Peppertree (Schinus terebenthifolius)

      • Literature review to identify promising species


Reading assignments biological control

  • Biological methods: How to implement?

    • Identify appropriate target weeds

    • Identify possible bio-control agents

    • Example: USDA ARS project: South American Biological Control Agents to Suppress Invasive Pests in the U.S. began Nov 8 2005

    • Targets include: Tropical Soda Apple (Solanum viarum), Water-hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), Brazilian Peppertree (Schinus terebenthifolius)

      • Literature review to identify promising species

      • Field surveys in South America


Reading assignments biological control

  • Biological methods: How to implement?

    • Identify appropriate target weeds

    • Identify possible bio-control agents

    • Example: USDA ARS project: South American Biological Control Agents to Suppress Invasive Pests in the U.S. began Nov 8 2005

    • Targets include: Tropical Soda Apple (Solanum viarum), Water-hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), Brazilian Peppertree (Schinus terebenthifolius)

      • Literature review to identify promising species

      • Field surveys in South America

      • Safety and effectiveness of control agent.


Reading assignments biological control

  • Biological methods: How to implement?

    • Identify appropriate target weeds

    • Identify possible bio-control agents

    • Example: USDA ARS project: South American Biological Control Agents to Suppress Invasive Pests in the U.S. began Nov 8 2005

    • Targets include: Tropical Soda Apple (Solanum viarum), Water-hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), Brazilian Peppertree (Schinus terebenthifolius)

      • Literature review to identify promising species

      • Field surveys in South America

      • Safety and effectiveness of control agent.

        • presence and abundance related to climate


Reading assignments biological control

  • Biological methods: How to implement?

    • Identify appropriate target weeds

    • Identify possible bio-control agents

    • Example: USDA ARS project: South American Biological Control Agents to Suppress Invasive Pests in the U.S. began Nov 8 2005

    • Targets include: Tropical Soda Apple (Solanum viarum), Water-hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), Brazilian Peppertree (Schinus terebenthifolius)

      • Literature review to identify promising species

      • Field surveys in South America

      • Safety and effectiveness of control agent.

        • presence and abundance related to climate

        • phenology of control agents and hosts


Reading assignments biological control

  • Biological methods: How to implement?

    • Identify appropriate target weeds

    • Identify possible bio-control agents

    • Example: USDA ARS project: South American Biological Control Agents to Suppress Invasive Pests in the U.S. began Nov 8 2005

    • Targets include: Tropical Soda Apple (Solanum viarum), Water-hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), Brazilian Peppertree (Schinus terebenthifolius)

      • Literature review to identify promising species

      • Field surveys in South America

      • Safety and effectiveness of control agent.

        • presence and abundance related to climate

        • phenology of control agents and hosts

        • type and level of damage on targets


Reading assignments biological control

  • Biological methods: How to implement?

    • Identify appropriate target weeds

    • Identify possible bio-control agents

    • Example: USDA ARS project: South American Biological Control Agents to Suppress Invasive Pests in the U.S. began Nov 8 2005

    • Targets include: Tropical Soda Apple (Solanum viarum), Water-hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), Brazilian Peppertree (Schinus terebenthifolius)

      • Literature review to identify promising species

      • Field surveys in South America

      • Safety and effectiveness of control agent.

        • presence and abundance related to climate

        • phenology of control agents and hosts

        • type and level of damage on targets

        • Oviposition and feeding substrates


Reading assignments biological control

  • Biological methods: How to implement?

    • Identify appropriate target weeds

    • Identify possible bio-control agents

    • Example: USDA ARS project: South American Biological Control Agents to Suppress Invasive Pests in the U.S. began Nov 8 2005

    • Targets include: Tropical Soda Apple (Solanum viarum), Water-hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), Brazilian Peppertree (Schinus terebenthifolius)

      • Literature review to identify promising species

      • Field surveys in South America

      • Safety and effectiveness of control agent.

        • presence and abundance related to climate

        • phenology of control agents and hosts

        • type and level of damage on targets

        • Oviposition and feeding substrates

        • overwintering sites


Reading assignments biological control

  • Biological methods: How to implement?

    • Identify appropriate target weeds

    • Identify possible bio-control agents

    • Example: USDA ARS project: South American Biological Control Agents to Suppress Invasive Pests in the U.S. began Nov 8 2005

    • Targets include: Tropical Soda Apple (Solanum viarum), Water-hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), Brazilian Peppertree (Schinus terebenthifolius)

      • Literature review to identify promising species

      • Field surveys in South America

      • Safety and effectiveness of control agent.

        • presence and abundance related to climate

        • phenology of control agents and hosts

        • type and level of damage on targets

        • Oviposition and feeding substrates

        • overwintering sites

        • Host range tests: primary and closely related hosts, critical hosts


Reading assignments biological control

  • Biological methods: How to implement?

    • Identify appropriate target weeds

    • Identify possible bio-control agents

    • Example: USDA ARS project: South American Biological Control Agents to Suppress Invasive Pests in the U.S. began Nov 8 2005

    • Targets include: Tropical Soda Apple (Solanum viarum), Water-hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), Brazilian Peppertree (Schinus terebenthifolius)

      • Literature review to identify promising species

      • Field surveys in South America

      • Safety and effectiveness of control agent

      • Climate modeling to match sources to target populations


Reading assignments biological control

  • Biological methods: How to implement?

    • Identify appropriate target weeds

    • Identify possible bio-control agents

    • Example: USDA ARS project: South American Biological Control Agents to Suppress Invasive Pests in the U.S. began Nov 8 2005

    • Targets include: Tropical Soda Apple (Solanum viarum), Water-hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), Brazilian Peppertree (Schinus terebenthifolius)

      • Literature review to identify promising species

      • Field surveys in South America

      • Safety and effectiveness of control agent

      • Climate modeling to match sources to target populations

      • Introduction of bio-control agents to quarantine sites in US for further testing


Reading assignments biological control

  • Biological methods: How to implement?

    • Identify appropriate target weeds

    • Identify possible bio-control agents

    • Example: USDA ARS project: South American Biological Control Agents to Suppress Invasive Pests in the U.S. began Nov 8 2005

    • Targets include: Tropical Soda Apple (Solanum viarum), Water-hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), Brazilian Peppertree (Schinus terebenthifolius)

      • Literature review to identify promising species

      • Field surveys in South America

      • Safety and effectiveness of control agent

      • Climate modeling to match sources to target populations

      • Introduction of bio-control agents to quarantine sites in US for further testing

      • Progress: have ID’d several agents and host species lists for each invasive plant. Prioritization of agents next priority. Import and testing in US projected for 2007-2008.


Reading assignments biological control

  • Biological methods: How to implement?

    • Identify appropriate target weeds

    • Identify possible bio-control agents

    • Rear the bio-control agent

      • Laboratory rearing:

        • Easier, more cost effective, less mortality, more insects?

        • Not ‘hardened’ to environmental conditions, lower success in releases


Reading assignments biological control

  • Biological methods: How to implement?

    • Identify appropriate target weeds

    • Identify possible bio-control agents

    • Rear the bio-control agent

      • Laboratory rearing:

        • Easier, more cost effective, less mortality, more insects?

        • Not ‘hardened’ to environmental conditions, lower success in releases

      • Field rearing:

        • More difficult, more expensive, fewer insects

        • Site selection is important (high quality stand of target plant)


Reading assignments biological control

  • Biological methods: How to implement?

    • Identify appropriate target weeds

    • Identify possible bio-control agents

    • Rear the bio-control agent

      • Laboratory rearing:

        • Easier, more cost effective, less mortality, more insects?

        • Not ‘hardened’ to environmental conditions, lower success in releases

      • Field rearing:

        • More difficult, more expensive, fewer insects

        • Site selection is important (high quality stand of target plant)

      • ‘quality’ probably outweighs ‘quantity’ in bio-control releases


Reading assignments biological control

  • Biological methods: How to implement?

    • Identify appropriate target weeds

    • Identify possible bio-control agents

    • Rear the bio-control agent

    • Release the biocontrol agent


Reading assignments biological control

  • Biological methods: How to implement?

    • Identify appropriate target weeds

    • Identify possible bio-control agents

    • Rear the bio-control agent

    • Release the biocontrol agent

      • Only about 60% of released agents become established (Crawley 1989).


Reading assignments biological control

  • Biological methods: How to implement?

    • Identify appropriate target weeds

    • Identify possible bio-control agents

    • Rear the bio-control agent

    • Release the biocontrol agent

      • Only about 60% of released agents become established (Crawley 1989)

      • Success affected by climate, size of release, number and timing of releases, predators, weather conditions

      • Improve success by releasing field-reared agents, matching climate, selecting release site carefully (high density of target plants, few predators)


Reading assignments biological control

  • Biological methods: How to implement?

    • Identify appropriate target weeds

    • Identify possible bio-control agents

    • Rear the bio-control agent

    • Release the biocontrol agent

      • Only about 60% of released agents become established (Crawley 1989)

      • Success affected by climate, size of release, number and timing of releases, predators, weather conditions

      • Improve success by releasing field-reared agents, matching climate, selecting release site carefully (high density of target plants, few predators)

      • Caged releases VS open field releases


Reading assignments biological control

  • Biological methods: How to implement?

    • Identify appropriate target weeds

    • Identify possible bio-control agents

    • Rear the bio-control agent

    • Release the biocontrol agent

      • Only about 60% of released agents become established (Crawley 1989)

      • Success affected by climate, size of release, number and timing of releases, predators, weather conditions

      • Improve success by releasing field-reared agents, matching climate, selecting release site carefully (high density of target plants, few predators)

      • Caged releases VS open field releases

      • e.g. Kirby et al 2000: released 80 beetles in 1989, 1000 beetles in 1990. Open release, colonization was successful.




Reading assignments biological control

  • Underlying socioeconomic issues

  • Introductions = $$$

    • Many (most) NIS introduced intentionally


Reading assignments biological control

  • Underlying socioeconomic issues

  • Introductions = $$$

    • Many (most) NIS introduced intentionally

    • Concern about control (esp biological control)

    • Other economic benefits of invasives – e.g. Purple Loosestrife makes good honey!


Reading assignments biological control

  • Underlying socioeconomic issues

  • Introductions = $$$

  • Public sentiment

Southwest Willow flycatcher

Endangered species;

Nests in Tamarisk

(nest success lower in Tamarisk

Than in native vegetation but

Still a concern)


Reading assignments biological control

  • Underlying socioeconomic issues

  • Introductions = $$$

  • Public sentiment

  • Fear of non-native species

    • IUCN prohibits release of NIS (non-indigenous species) in natural areas… this would mean no biological control

    • Concern about non-target effects


Reading assignments biological control

  • Underlying socioeconomic issues

  • Introductions = $$$

  • Public sentiment

  • Fear of non-native species

    • IUCN prohibits release of NIS (non-indigenous species) in natural areas… this would mean no biological control

    • Concern about non-target effects


Reading assignments biological control

Feasibility


Reading assignments biological control

  • Feasibility:

  • Biological characteristics: habitat specific; poor dispersal


Reading assignments biological control

  • Feasibility:

  • Biological characteristics: habitat specific; poor dispersal

  • Sufficient resources allocated: Eradicate AND restore


Reading assignments biological control

  • Feasibility:

  • Biological characteristics: habitat specific; poor dispersal

  • Sufficient resources allocated: Eradicate AND restore

  • Widespread support


Reading assignments biological control

  • Feasibility:

  • Biological characteristics: habitat specific; poor dispersal

  • Sufficient resources allocated: Eradicate AND restore

  • Widespread support

  • Prevent re-invasion


Reading assignments biological control

  • Feasibility:

  • Biological characteristics: habitat specific; poor dispersal

  • Sufficient resources allocated: Eradicate AND restore

  • Widespread support

  • Prevent re-invasion

  • Low populations


Reading assignments biological control

  • Feasibility:

  • Biological characteristics: habitat specific; poor dispersal

  • Sufficient resources allocated: Eradicate AND restore

  • Widespread support

  • Prevent re-invasion

  • Low populations