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# Lecture 1. Number Systems

COMP211 Computer Logic Design. Lecture 1. Number Systems. Prof. Taeweon Suh Computer Science Education Korea University. A Desktop Computer System ( as of 2008). The term “Processor” is used to refer to CPU. CPU. Main Memory (DDR2). FSB (Front-Side Bus). North Bridge. Graphics card. Download Presentation ## Lecture 1. Number Systems

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1. COMP211 Computer Logic Design Lecture 1. Number Systems Prof. Taeweon Suh Computer Science Education Korea University

2. A Desktop Computer System (as of 2008) • The term “Processor” is used to refer to CPU CPU Main Memory (DDR2) FSB (Front-Side Bus) North Bridge Graphics card DMI (Direct Media I/F) Peripheral devices South Bridge Hard disk USB PCIe card

3. A Computer System • Computer is composed of many components • CPU (Intel’s Core 2 Duo, AMD’s Opteron etc) • Memory (DDR3) • Chipsets (North Bridge and South Bridge) • Power Supply • Peripheral devices such as Graphics card and Wireless card • Monitor • Keyboard/mouse • etc

4. Digital vs Analog Analog Digital music video wireless signal

5. Bottom layer of a Computer • Each component inside a computer is basically made based on analog and digital circuits • Analog • Continuous signal • Digital • Only knows 1 and 0

6. What you mean by 0 or 1 in Digital Circuit? • In fact, everything in this world is analog • For example, sound, light, electric signals are all analog since they are continuous in time • Digital circuit is a special case of analog circuit • Power supply provides power to the computer system • Power supply has several outlets (such as 3.3V, 5V, and 12V)

7. What you mean by 0 or 1 in Digital Circuit? • Digital circuit treats a signal above a certain level as “1” and a signal below a certain level as “0” • Different components in a computer have different voltage requirements • CPU (Core 2 Duo): 1.325 V • Chipsets: 1.45 V • Peripheral devices: 3.3V, 1.5V Note: Voltage requirements change as the technology advances 1.325V “1” Not determined “0” 0V time

8. Number Systems • Analog information (video, sound etc) is converted to a digital format for processing • Computer processes information in digital • Since digital knows “1” and “0”, we use different number systems in computer • Binary and Hexadecimal numbers

9. Number Systems - Decimal • Decimal numbers • Most natural to human because we have ten fingers (?) and/or because we are used to it (?) • Each column of a decimal number has 10x the weight of the previous column • Decimal number has 10 as its base ex) 537410 = 5 x 103 + 3 x 102 + 7 x 101 + 4 x 100 • N-digit number represents one of 10N possibilities ex) 3-digit number represents one of 1000 possibilities: 0 ~ 999

10. Number Systems - Binary • Binary numbers • Bit represents one of 2 values: 0 or 1 • Each column of a binary number has 2x the weight of the previous column • Binary number has 2 as its base ex) 101102 = 1 x 24 + 0 x 23 + 1 x 22 + 1 x 21 + 0 x 20 = 2210 • N-bit binary number represents one of 2N possibilities ex) 3-bit binary number represents one of 8 possibilities: 0 ~ 7

11. Power of 2 • 20 = • 21 = • 22 = • 23 = • 24 = • 25 = • 26 = • 27 = • 28 = • 29 = • 210 = • 211 = • 212 = • 213 = • 214 = • 215 =

12. Power of 2 • 20 = 1 • 21 = 2 • 22 = 4 • 23 = 8 • 24 = 16 • 25 = 32 • 26 = 64 • 27 = 128 * Handy to memorize up to 29 • 28 = 256 • 29 = 512 • 210 = 1024 • 211 = 2048 • 212 = 4096 • 213 = 8192 • 214 = 16384 • 215 = 32768

13. Number Systems - Hexadecimal • Hexadecimalnumbers • Writing long binary numbers is tedious and error-prone • We group 4 bits to form a hexadecimal (hex) • A hex represents one of 16 values • 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B, C, D, E, and F • Each column of a hex number has 16x the weight of the previous column • Hexadecimal number has 16 as its base ex) 2ED16 = 2 x 162 + E (14) x 161 + D (13) x 160 = 74910 • N-hexadigit number represents one of 16N possibilities ex) 2-hexadigit number represents one of 162 possibilities: 0 ~ 255

14. Number Systems

15. Number Conversions • Hexadecimal to binary conversion: • Convert 4AF16 (also written 0x4AF) to binary number • Hexadecimal to decimal conversion: • Convert 0x4AF to decimal number • 0100 1010 11112 • 4×162 + A (10)×161 + F (15)×160 = 119910

16. Bits, Bytes, Nibbles • Bits (b) • Bytes & Nibbles • Byte (B) = 8 bits • Used everyday • Nibble (N) = 4 bits • Not commonly used

17. KB, MB, GB … • In computer, the basic unit is byte (B) • And, we use KB, MB, GB many manymany times • 210 = 1024 = • 220 = 1024 x 1024 = • 230 = 1024 x 1024 x 1024 = • How about these? • 240 = • 250 = • 260 = • 270 = • … 1KB (kilobyte) 1MB (megabyte) 1GB (gigabyte) 1TB (terabyte) 1PB (petabyte) 1EB (exabyte) 1ZB (zettabyte)

18. Quick Checks • 222 =? • 22 × 220 = 4 Mega • How many different values can a 32-bit variable represent? • 22 × 230 = 4 Giga • Suppose that you have 2GB main memory in your computer. How many bits you need to address (cover) 2GB? • 21 × 230 = 2 GB, so 31 bits

19. Addition • Decimal • Binary

20. Binary Addition Examples • Add the following 4-bit binary numbers 0001 1110

21. Overflow • Digital systems operate on a fixed number of bits • Addition overflows when the result is too big to fit in the available number of bits • Example: • add 13 and 5 using 4-bit numbers

22. Signed Binary Numbers • How does the computer represent positive and negative integer numbers? • There are 2 ways • Sign/Magnitude Numbers • Two’s Complement Numbers

23. Sign/Magnitude Numbers • 1 sign bit, N-1 magnitude bits • Sign bit is the most significant (left-most) bit • Negative number: sign bit = 1 • Positive number: sign bit = 0 • Example: 4-bit representations of ± 5: +5 = 01012 - 5 = 11012 • Range of an N-bit sign/magnitude number: [-(2N-1-1), 2N-1-1]

24. Sign/Magnitude Numbers • Problems • Addition doesn’t work naturally • Example: 5 + (-5) 0101 + 1101 10010 • Two representations of 0 (±0) 0000 (+0) 1000 (-0)

25. Two’s Complement Numbers • Ok, so what’s a solution to these problems? • 2’s complement numbers! • Don’t have the same problems as sign/magnitude numbers • Addition works fine • Single representation for 0 • So, hardware designer likes it and uses 2’s complement number system when designing adders (inside CPU)

26. Two’s Complement Numbers • Same as unsigned binary numbers, but the most significant bit (MSB) has value of -2N-1 • Example • Biggest positive 4-bit number: 01112 (710) • Lowest negative 4-bit number: 10002 (-23 = -810) • The most significant bit still indicates the sign • If MSB == 1, a negative number • If MSB == 0, a positive number • Range of an N-bit two’s complement number [-2N-1, 2N-1-1]

27. How to Make 2’s Complement Numbers? • Reversing the sign of a two’s complement number • Method: • Flip (Invert) the bits • Add 1 • Example -7: 2’s complement number of +7 0111 (+7) 1000 (flip all the bits) + 1 (add 1) 1001 (-7)

28. Two’s Complement Examples • Take the two’s complement of 01102 1001 (flip all the bits) + 1 (add 1) 1010 • Take the two’s complement of 11012 0010 (flip all the bits) + 1 (add 1) 0011

29. Two’s Complement Addition • Add 6 + (-6) using two’s complement numbers • Add -2 + 3 using two’s complement numbers

30. How do We Check it in Computer?

31. Increasing Bit Width • Sometimes, you need to increase the bit width when you design a computer • For example, read a 8-bit data from main memory and store it to a 32-bit • A value can be extended from N bits to M bits (where M > N) by using: • Sign-extension • Zero-extension

32. Sign-Extension • Sign bit is copied into most significant bits. • Number value remains the same • Examples • 4-bit representation of 3 = 0011 • 8-bit sign-extended value: • 4-bit representation of -5 = 1011 • 8-bit sign-extended value: 00000011 11111011

33. Zero-Extension • Zeros are copied into most significant bits. • Number value may change. • Examples • 4-bit value = 0011 • 8-bit zero-extended value: • 4-bit value = 1011 • 8-bit zero-extended value: 00000011 00001011

34. Number System Comparison For example, 4-bit representation:

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