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Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) in the United States. National Taiwan Normal University, National United University, and National Science Council SIG Conference, September 2011 William E. Dugger, Jr. Emeritus Professor, Virginia Tech &

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science technology engineering and mathematics stem in the united states

Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) in the United States

National Taiwan Normal University, National United University, and National Science Council SIG Conference, September 2011

William E. Dugger, Jr.

Emeritus Professor, Virginia Tech

&

Senior Fellow, International Technology and Engineering Educators Association

outline of presentation

STEM – defined

  • A few basic definitions
  • National content standards for STEM?
  • Why STEM is so important
  • Some current work in U. S. affecting STEM:
    • NAEP
    • Common Core Standards
    • Framework for K-12 Science Education
  • Some U. S. efforts to support STEM
    • Promises and challenges for STEM in the future
Outline of Presentation
slide3

The Constitution of the United States grants the Federal Government no authority over Education, the 10th Amendment applies:

      • "The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people."
stem science technology engineering and mathematics
STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics)

STEM is the integration of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics into a trans-disciplinary subject in schools.

STEM is a new offering in U. S. schools

STEM education offers a chance for students to make sense of the world rather than learn isolated bits and pieces of phenomena

STEM can be taught in a number of ways (integrated subject matter vs. ”silos” or other)

stem integrated or separated

STEM: Integrated or Separated?

Integrated STEM: The principles of science and the analysis of mathematics are combined with the design process of technology and engineering in the classroom.

Separated S.T.E.M.: Each subject is taught separately with the hope that the synthesis of disciplinary knowledge will be applied. This may be referred to as STEM being taught as “Silos”

stem definitions
STEM DEFINITIONS

Science is the study of our natural world (National Science Education Standards, National Research Council, 1996).

Technology is the modification of the natural world to meet to human wants and needs. (ITEA, 2000)

Engineering is design under constraint (William Wulf, Past-president of National Academy of Engineering)

Mathematics is the study of any patterns or relationships (AAAS, 1993)

updated definition of technology
Updated Definition of Technology
  • Technology is the modification of the natural world to meet to human wants and needs (ITEA).

➤It helps us to improve our health; to grow and process food and fiber better; to harness and use energy more efficiently; to communicate more effectively; to process data faster and accurately; to move people and things easier; to make products to enhance our lives; and to build structures that provide shelter and comfort (Dugger).

iteea gallup polls http www iteea org taa publications taa publications html polls
ITEEA/Gallup Polls<http://www.iteea.org/TAA/Publications/TAA_Publications.html#Polls>

2001 and 2004 ITEEA/Gallup Polls.

1000/800 national telephone interviews.

Theme: “What Americans Think About Technology”.

Over 60% of Americans think that technology and science, as well as technology and engineering, are basically one and the same.

iteea gallup polls continued http www iteea org taa publications taa publications html polls
ITEEA/Gallup Polls (Continued)<http://www.iteea.org/TAA/Publications/TAA_Publications.html#Polls>

98% believe that understanding the relationship between technology and science is important.

Two-thirds view technology narrowly as computers, electronics, and the Internet.

97% stated that the study of technology should be included in the school curriculum.

slide12

The study of technology or Technology Education should NOT be confused with Information Technology, Educational (or instructional) Technology, or Information and Computer Technology (ICT)!

slide14

“For a society so deeply dependent on technology and engineering, we are largely ignorant about technology and engineering concepts and processes, and we (the U. S.) have largely ignored this incongruity in our educational system.”

(Bybee, 2000)

schooling is not relevant to many of our youth in the u s today

Schooling is not relevant to many of our youth in the U. S. today:

In the U.S. in 2009, approximately 1.25 million kids left school without a high school diploma … that’s about 7,000 students a day!

(National Dropout Prevention Center, 2009)

slide16

The national Science Board in 2008 reported that the U. S. is currently experiencing a chronic decline in homegrown STEM talent and is increasingly dependent upon foreign scholars to fill the workforce and leadership voids.

slide17

The Council of Graduate Schools (2007) noted that graduate school admissions to some post secondary STEM programs are down by 30 percent over previous levels.

In some areas, only 16 percent of students in science and engineering disciplines were citizens of the U.S.

disturbing data

Only four percent of American college graduates in 2003 majored in engineering compared to 13 percent of European students and 20 percent of those in Asia.

Disturbing data:
slide19

A recent report of the U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics predicts that the number of jobs in STEM occupations will grow by 47 percent, three times the rate of all other occupations, by 2010.

(American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2005)

national content standards for stem

National Content Standards for STEM

No current integrated STEM Standards

Individual STEM Subject Standards

Science

Benchmarks for Science Literacy (AAAS. 1989)

National Science Education Standards (NRC, 1996)

New Framework of Science Standards (being developed now)

Mathematics

Principles and Standards for School Mathematics (NCTM, 2000)

individual standards continued

Individual Standards (Continued):

www.iteea.org

Engineering (None available)

Technology

Standards for Technological Literacy: Content

for the Study of Technology (STE)

(ITEA 2000,2002,2007)(ITEEA)

Advancing Excellence in Technological Literacy: Student Assessment, Professional Development, and Program Standards (AETL)(ITEA 2003)

Technology and Engineering

Standards (maybe in future)

individual standards continued22

Individual Standards (Continued):

State Standards – Varies by state

National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP)

Common Core State Standards

Framework for Science Education

slide23

National Assessment of

Educational Progress (NAEP)

(“The Nation’s Report Card”)

2014 Technology and Engineering Literacy Framework

www.naeptech2012.org

naep 2014 technology and engineering literacy framework

What is NAEP?

  • Evolution and Background
  • Process of Framework Development
    • Steering Committee
    • Planning Committee
NAEP 2014 Technology and Engineering Literacy Framework
overall purposes

Develop the recommended framework and specifications for NAEP Technology and Engineering Literacy Assessment in 2014 for grades 4, 8, and 12.

  • Recommend grade level(s) for the “probe” assessment in 2014.
  • Recommend important background variables associated with student achievement in Technology and Engineering Literacy that should be included in NAEP Assessment.
  • The assessment will be entirely computer-based.
Overall Purposes
common core state standards

National Governors Association Center for Best Practices

and

Council of Chief State School Officers

2010

www.corestandards.org

Common Core State Standards
common core state standards continued

Standards for English-language arts and mathematics

  • Grades K-12
  • Developed in collaboration with a variety of stakeholders including content experts, states, teachers, school administrators and parents.
  • The standards establish clear and consistent goals for learning that will prepare America’s children for success in college and work. 
  • Forty-four states have stated that they will adopt these standards.
Common Core State Standards(Continued)
www7 nationalacademies org bose

A Framework for K-12 Science Standards:

Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas

Board on Science Education,

The National Research Council

July, 2011

www7.nationalacademies.org/bose
slide30

HOW THE FRAMEWORK WAS DEVELOPED:

    • NRC convened a 18 person committee in 2009-2010 to develop a framework
    • Draft of framework was released in summer of 2010 for first review
    • Committee revised draft based on input received
    • Framework went through NRC review process also with more than 20 experts providing detailed comments
    • Committee revised framework in 2011
    • Final framework was released in July 2011
slide31

Dimension 1: Scientific and Engineering Practices:

    • 1. Asking questions (for science) and defining problems (for engineering)
    • 2. Developing and using models
    • 3. Planning and carrying out investigations
    • 4. Analyzing and interpreting data
slide32

Dimension 1: Scientific and Engineering Practices (Continued)

    • 5. Using mathematics and computational thinking
    • 6. Constructing explanations (for science) and designing solutions (for engineering)
    • 7. Engaging in argument from evidence
    • 8. Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information
slide33

Dimension 2: Crosscutting Concepts That Have Common Application Across Fields:

    • 1. Patterns
    • 2. Cause and effect: mechanism and explanation
    • 3. Scale, proportion, and quantity
    • 4. Systems and system models
    • 5. Energy and matter: flows, cycles, and conservation
    • 6. Structure and function
    • 7. Stability and change
slide34

Dimension 3: Core Ideas in Four Disciplinary Areas:

  • 1. Physical Sciences
      • PS 1: Matter and its interactions
      • PS 2: Motion and stability: Forces and interactions
      • PS 3: Energy
      • PS 4: Waves and their applications in technologies for information transfer
slide35

Dimension 3: Core Ideas in Four Disciplinary Areas (Continued):

  • 2. Life Sciences
      • LS 1: From molecules to organisms: Structures and processes
      • LS 2: Ecosystems: Interactions, energy, and dynamics
      • LS 3: Heredity: Inheritance and variation of traits
      • LS 4: Biological Evolution: Unity and diversity
slide36

Dimension 3: Core Ideas in Four Disciplinary Areas (Continued):

  • 3. Earth and Space Sciences
      • ESS 1: Earth’s place in the universe
      • ESS 2: Earth’s systems
      • ESS 3: Earth and human activity
slide37

Dimension 3: Core Ideas in Four Disciplinary Areas (Continued):

  • 4. Engineering, Technology, and the Applications of Science
      • ETS 1: Engineering design
      • ETS 2: Links among engineering, technology, science, and society
some u s efforts to support stem education

International Technology and Engineering Educators Association (ITEEA)(www.iteea.org)

  • The National Academies (NAS, NAE, NRC)(www.nap.edu)
  • National Science Foundation (NSF) (www.nsf.gov)
  • American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE)(www.asee.org)
  • Federal and State Efforts
Some U. S. Efforts to Support STEM Education:
promises and challenges for stem

Some promises from STEM:

    • Enhance student learning in the subjects of critical need:*
      • STEM is an excellent way to synthesize and give more meaning to closely related subjects.
      • Students gain knowledge and abilities in an integrated environment.
      • Students are encouraged to be more innovative in what they are learning.
      • Students describe STEM as appealing and fulfilling
Promises and Challenges for STEM

* Some of this content came from Dr. John Ritz (Professor) and Amanda Roberts (PhD Student) at Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA

promises and challenges for stem40

Some challenges of STEM:

    • STEM requires systemic change by policy makers, administration, and teachers to set the agenda and make the transition:*
      • Change is difficult to make.
      • Many teachers were not prepared (nor want) to teach in an integrated environment.
      • The formal integration of subjects in the U. S. has not met with much success in the past.
      • May require additional resources.
Promises and Challenges for STEM

* Some of this content came from Dr. John Ritz (Professor) and Amanda Roberts (PhD Student) at Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA

slide41

SUMMARY: This presentation has provided a view of the development and status of STEM in the U.S.

  • The items discussed were:
    • STEM – defined
    • A few basic definitions
    • National content standards for STEM?
    • Why STEM is so important
    • Some current work in U. S. affecting STEM:
      • NAEP
      • Common Core Standards
      • Framework for K-12 Science Education
    • Some U. S. efforts to support STEM
    • Promises and challenges for STEM in the future
thank you
Thank you!

William E. Dugger, Jr.

Senior Fellow and Former Director

Technology for All Americans Project

International Technology and Engineering Educators Association

wdugger@iteea.org

and

Emeritus Professor, Virginia Tech

dugger@vt.edu

this presentation may be viewed or downloaded at

This presentation may be viewed or downloaded at:

http://www.iteea.org/

Resources/PressRoom/

pressroom.htm