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FROM TEACHING TO LEARNING TEACHING & LEARNING SYMPOSIUM UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN – MADISON MAY 20, 2009. Vice Provost for Teaching & Learning Professor, School of Social Work. Aaron Brower. Today’s outline. Moving from teaching to learning: What do students know and retain?

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from teaching to learning teaching learning symposium university of wisconsin madison may 20 2009

FROM TEACHING TO LEARNINGTEACHING & LEARNING SYMPOSIUMUNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN – MADISONMAY 20, 2009

Vice Provost for Teaching & Learning

Professor, School of Social Work

Aaron Brower

today s outline
Today’s outline
  • Moving from teaching to learning: What do students know and retain?
  • What kinds of information and experiences should we offer?
  • The 5 teaching best practices that foster student learning
  • Web 2.0 in our own teaching & learning

5.To use as many activities as possible!

who are our students
Who are our students?

“A Vision of Students Today” by Michael Wesch, Kansas State University

slide4

“The real cure for the ills of democracy is more democracy”

- Bob LaFollette, February 17, 1912 appearing in La Follette's Weekly

slide5
Preamble from a 2008 national report by Frederick Hess (Still at Risk: What students don’t know, even now)

Senator Joseph McCarthy investigated people who protested the war in Vietnam, better known as the Second World War. Fortunately, that war was over before Christopher Columbus sailed to America; otherwise, we might have never experienced the Renaissance.

Based on a telephone survey of 1,200 17-year-olds:

  • Almost 20 % did not know who our enemy was in World War II
  • More than a quarter thought Columbus sailed after 1750 (2% said after 1950!)
  • Half did not know who Sen. McCarthy investigated
  • Half did not know what the Renaissance was
slide6

More history and literature misinformation from this same survey

  • Almost 60% didn’t know that the Civil War was between 1850 and 1900.
  • 40% didn’t know that the First World War was between 1900 and 1950.
  • Almost 60% don’t know what The Invisible Man by Ralph Ellison is about & almost 50% don’t know what 1984 is about. Over 50% don’t know who Oedipus is.
geography knowledge 2006 poll of young adults
Geography Knowledge(2006 poll of young adults)
  • 1/3rd of respondents couldn’t locate Louisiana and 48% couldn’t locate Mississippi.
  • 60% couldn’t find Iraq on a map of the Middle East.
  • 47% could not find India on a map of Asia.
  • 75% were unable to locate Israel on a map of the Middle East.
  • 60% didn’t know the border between North and South Korea is the most heavily fortified in the world. 30% thought it was between the U.S. and Mexico.
  • Less than 30% think it important to know the locations of countries in the news; only 14% believe speaking another language is a necessary skill.
slide8

Science Knowledge

  • Over half of all Americans don't know that the Earth orbits the Sun once a year.
  • Nearly half think that humans once lived, like the Flintstones, alongside dinosaurs. 
take out your clickers
Take out your clickers…

Should you take an antibiotic for a cold?

  • Yes, it knocks out the bug
  • Yes, but while it won't help me, it will decrease the spread of the bug
  • No, by the time you have cold symptoms, it's already too late to knock out the bug
  • No, it won't have any effect
take out your clickers10
Take out your clickers…

What causes the seasons?

  • The distance between the earth and the sun during its elliptical orbit
  • The amount of sunlight during the day
  • The angle of the earth’s axis of rotation
  • A complicated but predictable relationship between the amount and density of ozone, moisture, and other ionic changes in the atmosphere
take out your clickers11
Take out your clickers…

All else being equal, the relationship between attitude change and behavior change is

  • Attitudes precede behavior change (i.e., you have to first want to change)
  • Attitudes follow behavior change (i.e., attitudes change to rationalize behavior change)
  • Both change more or less simultaneously
  • People don’t change
let s go old school
Let’s go old school…

Which language is spoken by the most native speakers?

  • Spanish
  • English
  • Hindi
  • Mandarin Chinese
  • Including secondary speakers:
    • Mandarin Chinese
    • English
    • Spanish
    • Russian
it s not that we re dumb but what s going on here
It’s not that we’re dumb, but what's going on here...
  • We retain what we use, and what we teach to others
  • We retain information that’s repeated
  • We retain information with emotional connections
the learning pyramid average retention rates for different teaching methods
The Learning PyramidAverage Retention Rates for Different Teaching Methods

5% Lecture

10% Reading

20% Audio Visual

30% Demonstration

50% Discussion Groups

75% Practice by Doing

90% Teaching Others

Source: National Training Lab - Bethel, Maine

the importance of repetition
The Importance of Repetition
  • Within 48 hours, we forget the majority of all information received in the previous 48 hours.
  • Repetition is critical to reinforcing and sustaining messages in people’s minds.

Sources: The Arbitron National In-Car Study, Arbitron, 2003; The Arbitron Outdoor Study, Arbitron, 2001; National Public Transportation Survey, Outdoor Advertising Association of America.

the role of emotion the confluent model of education
The Role of Emotion:The Confluent Model of Education

“For a long time we have known the importance of personal involvement in learning. Educational psychologists state that if learning has no personal meaning, it will not change behavior. Seldom has the converse been stated: if we add an emotional dimension to learning, the learner will become personally involved, and as a consequence, there will be change in the learner’s behavior.”

Brown, 1971

really it s not that we re dumb
Really – it’s not that we’re dumb...!
  • We retain what we use, and what we teach to others
  • We retain information that’s repeated
  • We retain information with emotional connections
  • So, what information is retained and used?
  • What information should be retained and used?
  • And therefore, what information should we teach, and through what kinds of experiences?
uw madison s essential learning outcomes
UW-Madison’s Essential Learning Outcomes

Beginning in the first year, and continuing at successively higher levels across their college studies, students should prepare for twenty-first-century challenges by gaining

  • Knowledge of Human Cultures and the Physical & Natural World

Through study in the sciences and mathematics, social sciences, humanities, histories, languages, and the arts

Focusedby engagement with big questions, both contemporary and enduring

  • Intellectual and Practical Skills, including

Inquiry and analysis Critical and creative thinking

Written and oral communication Quantitative literacy

Information and technology literacy Teamwork and problem solving

Practiced extensively, across the curriculum, in the context of progressively more challenging problems, projects, and standards for performance

  • Personal and Social Responsibility, including

Civic knowledge & engagement Intercultural knowledge & competence

Ethical reasoning & action Foundations & skills for lifelong learning

Anchored through active involvement with diverse communities and real-world challenges

  • Integrative Learning, including

Synthesis and advanced accomplishment across general and specialized studies

Demonstrated through the application of knowledge, skills, and responsibilities to new settings and complex problems

aac u s employer survey what skills should colleges emphasize
AAC&U’s Employer Survey: What skills should colleges emphasize?

% saying colleges should put more emphasis on each learning outcome

Science and technologydevelopments

Teamwork skills indiverse settings

Applied knowledge inreal-world settings

Written/oral communication

Critical/analytical thinking

Global issues

Information literacy

aac u s employer survey what skills should colleges emphasize20
AAC&U’s Employer Survey: What skills should colleges emphasize?

% saying colleges should put more emphasis on each learning outcome

Creativity/innovation

Complex problem solving

U.S. role in the world

Quantitative literacy

Ethics and integrity

Cultural values/traditions

Civic engagement

aac u s employer survey college grads aren t well prepared in key areas
AAC&U’s Employer Survey: College grads aren't well prepared in key areas

Meanrating*

7.0

6.9

6.9

6.7

6.7

6.6

6.5

6.3

6.3

6.1

5.9

5.7

Very well prepared(8-10 ratings)*

39%

38%

38%

35%

32%

30%

28%

24%

22%

26%

23%

18%

Not well prepared(1-5 ratings)*

17%

19%

19%

21%

23%

23%

26%

30%

31%

37%

42%

46%

Teamwork

Ethical judgment

Intercultural skills

Social responsibility

Quantitative reasoning

Oral communication

Self-knowledge

Adaptability

Critical thinking

Writing

Self-direction

Global knowledge

*ratings on 10-point scale: 10 = recent college graduates are extremely well prepared on each quality to succeed in entry level positions or be promoted/advance within the company

aac u s employer survey grads should have experiences that pull it all together

Very effective

Fairly effective

AAC&U’s Employer Survey: Grads should have experiences that pull it all together

Supervised/evaluated internship/community-based project where students apply college learning in real-world setting

83%

Advanced comprehensive senior project, such as thesis, demonstrating student’s depth of knowledge in major & problem-solving, writing, and analytic reasoning skills

79%

Essay tests to evaluate level of problem-solving, writing, and analytical-thinking skills

60%

Electronic portfolio of student’s college work, including accomplishments in key skill areas and faculty assessments

56%

Multiple-choice tests of general content knowledge

32%

aac u s employer survey e valuations should be based on the comprehensive experiences

Very useful

Fairly useful

AAC&U’s Employer Survey: Evaluations should be based on the comprehensive experiences

Faculty supervisor’s assessment of applicant’s student internship/ community-based project applying college learning in real-world setting

67%

Sample of applicant’s student senior project and overview of faculty assessment of the project

61%

Electronic portfolio of applicant’s college work, including accomplishments in key skill areas and faculty assessments

56%

Applicant’s score on essay test to evaluate level of problem-solving, writing, and analytical-thinking skills

54%

Applicant college’s score showing how the college compares to others in advancing students’ critical-thinking skills

36%

Applicant’s score on multiple-choice test of general content knowledge

29%

employers find college transcripts of limited use in evaluating potential
Employers Find College Transcripts Of Limited Use In Evaluating Potential

How useful do you find the college transcript in helping you evaluate job applicants’ potential to succeed at your company?

Not sure

Very useful

Fairly useful

Not useful

Just somewhat useful

uw madison s essential learning outcomes25
UW-Madison’s Essential Learning Outcomes

Beginning in the first year, and continuing at successively higher levels across their college studies, students should prepare for twenty-first-century challenges by gaining

  • Knowledge of Human Cultures and the Physical & Natural World

Through study in the sciences and mathematics, social sciences, humanities, histories, languages, and the arts

Focusedby engagement with big questions, both contemporary and enduring

  • Intellectual and Practical Skills, including

Inquiry and analysis Critical and creative thinking

Written and oral communication Quantitative literacy

Information and technology literacy Teamwork and problem solving

Practiced extensively, across the curriculum, in the context of progressively more challenging problems, projects, and standards for performance

  • Personal and Social Responsibility, including

Civic knowledge & engagement Intercultural knowledge & competence

Ethical reasoning & action Foundations & skills for lifelong learning

Anchored through active involvement with diverse communities and real-world challenges

  • Integrative Learning, including

Synthesis and advanced accomplishment across general and specialized studies

Demonstrated through the application of knowledge, skills, and responsibilities to new settings and complex problems

five teaching best practices that lead to learning
Five Teaching “Best Practices” that Lead to Learning
  • Learning in Context
  • Group-based Learning
  • Increased Time on Task
  • Increased Frequency of Feedback
  • Positive Classroom Climate
  • Cabrera, A. F. & La Nasa, S. (2005). Classroom teaching practice: Ten lessons learned. In W. de Vries (Ed.). Calidad, eficiencia y evaluación de la educación superior (129-151). Spain, Madrid: Netbiblo.
learning in context
Learning in Context
  • Humanities example (Philosophy FIG): In this FIG, “Good, Beauty, and the Meaning of Life,” students will focus on some of the deepest, hardest, and most central questions we confront in our lives. The class will approach these questions by reading and discussing both classic philosophical works and some recent studies engaged with these perennial issues. The course is really concerned with the question of whether human beings can have good lives and, if so, what such lives look like. The course will consider a variety of answers: the good life is devoted to such things as self-examination and critical thinking, political engagement, religious devotion, renunciation of external goods, virtue, happiness, and pleasure. Students will consider whether life has any meaning at all, and if not, what we do in response to such a finding. (Steve Nadler)
learning in context28
Learning in Context
  • Science example (Chem 108): In this course, you will study real-world issues that we hope will catch your interest and engage you over the course of the semester, if not for a lifetime. We will consider questions such as, "How can radiation both cause and cure cancer?", "Is global climate change occurring?", "How clean is the air I breathe?", "Does it matter if I eat hydrogenated peanut butter?" and "Why is it hard to recycle certain plastics?" In order to understand and respond thoughtfully to the issues involved, you must understand certain chemical principles as well as be able to think through complex issues that may not have easy answers. (Cathy Middlecamp, Jamie Ellis)
learning in context29
Learning in Context
  • Service Learning example (Physical Therapy in Belize): Four students and 3 instructors went on a two-week service-learning trip to Punta Gorda, Belize during the winter break. Goals for the trip were to provide “the opportunity to develop community education programs on disability and to perform service projects for the community and for families of those with disabilities.” (Center for Global Health and SMPH)
  • Study Abroad example (Florence program): “The Florence program is … is housed in the Villa Corsi-Salviati in Sesto Fiorentino, located six miles from the center of Florence … Living in Sesto allows students to easily explore the surrounding Tuscany countryside as well as Florence itself … This program is ideal for students interested in studying the humanities or social sciences … Placements in the past have included teaching English in local schools, interning at City Hall or working with the Sesto Recreation Department. (Int’l Acad. Programs)
group based learning
Group-Based Learning
  • EPD 160, required intro to Engineering.
  • WES Program in Intro Calculus. Harder problems done in small groups.
  • Accenture Leadership Center’s course (Bus 365; Shannon Elliott).
  • Child Psyc (Psyc560; Jenny Saffran; 200 students). Small groups of students develop projects working with kids in the community, and then they upload their ppt and/or videos to Learn@UW for the rest of the class to see.
increased time on task
Increased Time on Task
  • On-line homework (John Moore’s Chem 109)
  • Clickers used during lecture to keep attention (Jeff Henriques’s Psyc 202).
    • One student’s comment:

“I do think they are very helpful… If you didn't require students to purchase a clicker, would they pay attention in class when you ask questions?? Probably not.  The questions are very helpful even without the clicker, assuming that students pay attention and actually think about the question.”

increased frequency of feedback
Increased Frequency of Feedback
  • Bob Jeanne and low-stakes lecture-prep quizzes in Bio 151/2
  • Elizabeth Becker (T.A.) teaches a section of Psyc 202 for AAP and CEO (TRIO): students write and rewrite their main paper 5 times in the semester; Elizabeth meets with them for each rewrite. Shows sig. increases in both GPAs and students’ academic self confidence.
positive classroom climate
Positive Classroom Climate
  • Lisa Photos learning all the names of her students in ILS 200 (Critical Thinking & Expression; about 200 students)
  • Alexander Shasko’s use of music at beginning of class for Afro-Am 156 (Black Music and American Cultural History; 240 students)
  • Tracy Schroepfer’s intentional social interaction in SW457 (Human Beh & Social Env.; 100 students)
courses and experiences that put it all together
Courses and Experiencesthat Put it All Together
  • FIGs
  • RLCs
  • Study Abroad
  • Capstones and Senior Theses
  • Emerging hybrid model for intro gateway/service courses
  • One bad example: the syllabi for Intro to Social Work
take out the clickers again
Take out the clickers again...

Which best practice are you most familiar with?

  • Learning in Context
  • Group-based Learning
  • Increased Time on Task
  • Increased Frequency of Feedback
  • Positive Classroom Climate
what courses activities did i miss
What courses/activities did I miss??
  • Talk with one neighbor about a favorite course or activity that you know about that uses one or more of these five best practices. Take about 3-5 minutes.
  • Find another pair and share your course/activity with them.
  • We’ll come back together in 10 minutes.
  • Upload your examples onto TLE.wisc.edu…

(think-pair-square-share)

web 2 0 google world vs card catalogue world
Web 2.0: Google World vs. Card Catalogue World

“The Machine is us/using us” by Michael Wesch, Kansas State University

the special role of technology web 2 0
The Special Role of Technology & Web 2.0
  • We are living through a genuine information revolution, from the card catalogue world to the google world.
  • Our campus is organized in the card catalogue world; our students are living in the google world.
  • How would we set up the university differently — how would courses, majors, activities, services be organized — if we started over in the google world?
  • Mainly, what are the skills needed to do good work in the google world? Are we providing them?
web 2 0 in teaching learning
Web 2.0 in Teaching & Learning

This is an unexplored frontier; here are some examples:

  • History 434: A History of American Grand Strategy (Jeremi Suri). Digitizing historical maps and GoogleEarth to walk through historical worlds; i.e., comparing the creation of the Trans-Siberian Railway during the Russo-Japanese War (early 1900s) to the challenges constructing the Japanese railroad from Thailand into Burma during WWII.
  • Music 151: Music Theory (for non-majors) (Jamie Henke). An application of a garage band-like program that lets students create music and experiment with concepts taught. ALSO, using facebook-type application (Ning) to create social network profiles for famous composers from history.
  • http://engage.wisc.edu/sims_games/phaseIII/
a cautionary tale even faculty aren t immune
A Cautionary Tale - even faculty aren’t immune…
  • “Do you think Dartmouth parents would be upset about paying $40,000 a year for their children to go here if they knew that certain professors were looking up stuff on wikipedia and asking for advice from their facebook friends on the night before the lecture?”
  • Another entry: “When I’m chair, we’re all going to JOG IN PLACE throughout the [faculty] meeting, this should knock out at least half of the faculty within 10 min. (especially the blowhards)..."
  • Look it up: google Reiko Ohnuma and you’ll see how quickly this story spread…
our very own tle website
Our Very Own TLE website

TLE.wisc.edu

  • Visit it—and contribute!
  • How we’re using it for this conference
  • Thank you John Thompson and Blaire Bundy; Mo Noonan Bischof, Jake Blanchard and Jeff Henriques!!
one more activity minute paper
One more activity (Minute Paper)
  • Write down the one most important thing you learned my presentation.
  • Write down the one best practice will you incorporate into your course or educational opportunity next year.
  • Write down the one unanswered question that you would like an answer to.
    • Seek out the answer to that question through the rest of this symposium
slide43

Thank you!!

Enjoy the conference!

Enjoy your colleagues!

Visit and contribute to TLE.wisc.edu