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Transition metal chemistry. Coordination compounds – ligands and things Coordinate covalent bonds and ligands Nomenclature Isomerism Spectroscopy Electronic structure. Coordinate covalent bond. Lewis acid/base chemistry Lone pair on water (base) Vacancy on Fe 2+ (acid).

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transition metal chemistry

Transition metal chemistry

Coordination compounds – ligands and things

Coordinate covalent bonds and ligands




Electronic structure

coordinate covalent bond
Coordinate covalent bond
  • Lewis acid/base chemistry
  • Lone pair on water (base)
  • Vacancy on Fe2+ (acid)
positive neutral negative
Positive, neutral, negative
  • The complex can be an ion that forms part of a neutral compound - square brackets delineate the complex
  • Or may exist as a standalone neutral compound (no square brackets)
things to consider
Things to consider
  • Coordination number – the number of ligands around the central ion
  • Geometry – the shape of the complex
  • Much greater variety and complexity compared with the geometry of covalent molecules of the representative elements
geometry prelude
Geometry - prelude
  • Rules for determining geometry are more involved than the simple VSEPR approach that works well with covalent compounds
  • Note: same composition may adopt different geometries
  • Will be dealt with using ligand-field theory
things to know
Things to know

Overall charge

  • Writing the correct formula
  • Determining oxidation state on the central atom
    • Complex charge - Sum of anion charges = o.s.

Square bracket

Number of anion ligands

Number of neutral ligands

ligands entities with teeth
Ligands – entities with teeth
  • Must contain a lone electron pair
  • Classify the ligands according to the number of available pairs
    • Monodentate – one pair
    • Bidentate – two pairs
    • Polydentate – many pairs
chelating ligands with claws
Chelating – ligands with claws
  • Ligands with greater than one lone pair can form more than one bond to a single metal ion
  • Ethylene diamine (en)– tridentate
  • EDTA - hexadentate
important biological entities
Important biological entities
  • (a) The structure of the porphine molecule. Loss of the two NH protons gives a planar, tetradentate 2– ligand that can bond to a metal cation. The porphyrins are derivatives of porphine in which the peripheral H atoms are replaced by various substituent groups. (b) Schematic of the planar heme group, the attached protein chain, and the bound O2 molecule in oxyhemoglobin and oxymyoglobin. The Fe(II) ion has a six-coordinate, octahedral environment, and the O2 acts as a monodentate ligand.
rules rules rules
Rules, rules, rules
  • If the compound is a salt, naming is as for common salts: cation first and then anion

Potassium hexacyanoferrate(III)

complex ion or neutral complex
Complex ion or neutral complex
  • Ligands first then metal
  • Endings are the thing
    • Anionic ligands end in –o
    • -ide → -o; -ate → -ato
    • Neutral ligands have normal names except…
    • H2O (aqua), NH3 (ammine), CO (carbonyl)
  • One word: nospacebetweenligandandmetal


more than one ligand
More than one ligand
  • Indicate number of ligands by prefixes: di-, tri-, etc.
  • Ligands are listed in alphabetical order

Tetraaquadichlorochromium(III) chloride

it s all greek to me
It’s all Greek to me
  • If the ligand name contains a Greek prefix (ethylenediamine), the ligand name is in parantheses and use an alternative prefix: bis-(2), tris-(3), tetrakis(4)

Tris(ethylenediamine)cobalt(III) chloride

roman numerals
Roman numerals
  • Roman numeral in parantheses to indicate oxidation state of metal in situation where the o.s. is variable
ate crimes
-ate crimes
  • -ate is the conventional ending for the metal in an anionic complex
  • Check table for exact wording