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MAKING IT WORK:. Instruction, Assessment & Intervention with ELL students through the RTI process. OVERVIEW:. TIER I. Where most of the changes are needed to state that an ELL student has received appropriate instruction. TIER I INSTRUCTION. *ELL'S READING ACHIEVEMENT.

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MAKING IT WORK:

Instruction, Assessment & Intervention with ELL students through the RTI process




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Where most of the changes are needed to state that an ELL student has received appropriate instruction.

TIER I INSTRUCTION


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*ELL'S READING ACHIEVEMENT student has received appropriate instruction.

--Thomas & Collier, 1997


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DELAWARE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION, 2008 student has received appropriate instruction.

DE INSTRUCTION FOR ELLS 2007-2008


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SCARCELLA, 2003 student has received appropriate instruction.

WHY DO MANY ELL'S FAIL TO ACQUIRE CALP?

  • Lack of exposure to appropriate books and people who use academic language

  • Lack of opportunities to learn and use academic language

  • Lack of systematic, explicit instruction and sufficient and supportive feedback


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TRIPLE EFFECT student has received appropriate instruction.


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IMPROVING CALP student has received appropriate instruction.

  • Connect academic language with reading & writing activities

  • Provide opportunities to produce the language through interactions


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UPDATED RESEARCH student has received appropriate instruction.

  • With intensive literacy & academic language instruction, ELL students can develop CALP by the 4th grade

  • Explicit oral language instruction is needed across all content areas

    This is missing in MOST regular education classrooms


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Intensive literacy student has received appropriate instruction.instruction

Extensive vocabulary instruction

academic language instruction across content areas

Scaffolding/supports provided to increase comprehension

Instructional conversations

CRITICAL FEATURES


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Multiple exposure to target words over several days student has received appropriate instruction.

Reading, Writing and Speaking opportunities

Emphasize student-friendly definitions

Provide regular review

VOCABULARY INSTRUCTION


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IDENTIFYING VOCABULARY student has received appropriate instruction.

  • School/district core reading program

  • ELLs will need instruction on additional words in the program

  • Instruction will need to be more extensive than recommended by the program


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IDENTIFYING VOCABULARY student has received appropriate instruction.

  • Teacher study groups using available texts

  • Identify vocabulary to be taught

  • Create student-friendly definitions

  • Create lesson plans for vocabulary instruction



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Identify ELL students?antonyms and synonyms (e.g. “What means the same as…”)

Sentence completion (e.g. “It was dark so she turned on the _____”)

Multiple meaning words (e.g. Give me 2 meanings for “bat”)

Describing (e.g. “tell me 2 things to describe a…”)

Categorizing and Classifying (e.g. Tell me 5 things that are cold)

Grammar knowledge (e.g. nouns, verbs, etc.)

Syntax knowledge – parts of a sentence (S-V-O)

SLP SUPPORT


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Gersten ELL students? et al. (2007) , 2007

Instructional time should focus on

explicit instruction of academic English

adverbial forms

conditional sentences

prepositions

words that express relationships

Reading, discussing and writing about texts

needs to be a central part of the language development

instruction dispersed throughout the day

ACADEMIC LANGUAGE


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Gersten ELL students? et al. (2007) , 2007

Schedule regular blocks of English instruction time

It increases the time ELLs have to learn the language

Instruction spaced throughout the day provides better opportunities for deep processing and retention

The focus is clearly on language

ENGLISH INSTRUCTION TIME


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EARLY ELEMENTARY ELL students?


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Gersten ELL students? et al. (2007) , 2007

Discuss text & the language in structured ways

Verb tense, plurals, use of adjectives & adverbs

Use language in a variety of situations

Tell stories

Describe events

Explain problems

Question intentions

FOR ELL READERS


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Content Objectives ELL students?

what students will learn to do

Language Objectives

language function or skill that the student will use in the lesson

LESSON PLANS


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Realia ELL students?

Pictures

Videos

Demonstrations

Hands-on Manipulatives

Graphic Organizers

Total Physical Response

Feedback

L1 Support

Model Performance Indicators

SCAFFOLDING


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WIDA Consortium, 2007 ELL students?

Gives expectations for what students should be able to process & produce at a given proficiency level.

Based on the ACCESS test & WIDA's English Language Proficiency Standards

Using state academic content standards

MODEL PERFORMANCE INDICATOR (MPI)


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ACCESS TEST ELL students?


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ACCESS : ELL students?LEVELS of ENGLISH PROFICIENCY


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WIDA CONSORTIUM, 2007 ELL students?

EXAMPLE

LEVEL 1

Match prices/goods with visually supported materials

Example: newspapers or magazines

Use oral questions with a partner

Example: “Which one costs a lot?”


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EXAMPLE ELL students?

LEVEL 4

Predict prices of goods using visually supported materials and oral questions with partner

Example: “Which one do you think costs under $1000?”

WIDA CONSORTIUM, 2007


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HILL & FLYNN, 2006 ELL students?

FEEDBACK

Model correct grammar, pronunciation or vocabulary

Prevents fossilizing errors

Do not point out errors

Corrective feedback for errors related to lesson content

Should be timely

Reflect progress in learning specific information

Better than # of correct answers

Rubrics are helpful


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WRIGHT, 2008 ELL students?

PRIMARY LANGUAGE SUPPORT

Provide bilingual picture dictionaries

Teach students how to use them

Accept students' initial writing in L1 as they transition to writing in English

Have L1 books & recordings in the listening center

Should be similar to the English books in the classroom

To reinforce concepts that were taught

Send books home to read with a parent or sibling

Use resources on the internet

Translations ( www.spanishdict.com )

Online bilingual dictionary ( www.wordreference.com )

Educational activities

Allow bilingual students to help ELL peers in L1


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Talk slowly ELL students?and clearly

Paraphrase often

Use animated facial expressions & gestures

Avoid idioms, or explain them

Check in with the student to see if they understand

Allow them to use their L1

Truly value the children's cultures

TEACHER CHARACTERISTICS


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USE STUDENTS' CULTURE ELL students?

  • Introducing a lesson:

  • ask students what experience they have with the topic

  • Students are:

  • emotionally connected to the topic

  • feeling valued as a member of the class

  • motivated to learn more

  • exposed to other cultures & histories

  • Building upon a student’s culture triggers vocabulary & previous knowledge to build on


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THE BASICS OF ELL students?READING COMPREHENSION


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INSTRUCTIONAL CONVERSATIONS ELL students?& COOPERATIVE LEARNING

HARRY & FLYNN, 2006


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LUNCH BREAK ELL students?


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TIER II ELL students?


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Same interventions as monolinguals BUT… ELL students?

Adaptations for lack of English proficiency

Additional academic language instruction

Understanding that progress will not be as robust

Sensitivity to schedule

should not lose exposure time to content area material

TIER II


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PA INTERVENTIONS ELL students?

  • Venn diagrams to compare sounds or words in English & L1

  • Explicit instruction on pronunciation of sounds & words

  • Encourage pronunciation practice

    • Choral reading, echo reading

    • Sound sorting of pictures

    • Poetry & music


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WORD READING INTERVENTIONS ELL students?

  • Same reading interventions as for monolingual students, although progress will not be as profound

  • In addition, explicit oral language instruction

    • Vocabulary

    • Grammar/syntax

  • Explicit phonemic instruction may be needed.


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READING FLUENCY INTERVENTIONS ELL students?

  • Verbal language instruction

    • Focus on vocabulary

    • grammar/syntax

    • Idioms

  • Increased exposure to print


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    Francis et al ELL students?. 2006

    EFFECTIVE VOCABULARY INSTRUCTION


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    EXAMPLE: ELL students?“look”

    Look around (observe)

    Look into (investigate)

    Look after (take care of)

    Look for (search)

    Look out for (be careful with)

    Look like (look similar)

    Look over (read, edit, review)


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    EXAMPLE: ELL students?“look”

    • “take a look” (noun”)

    • “I like the looks of it” (noun)

    • “this is a looking glass” (adjective)

    • “I need to look for it” (infinitive verb)

    • “He looks” (3rd person /s/)

    • “Look at me” (imperative)

    • “She’s looking” (present progressive verb)

    • “We looked around” (regular past tense /-ed/)

    • “They had looked” (past participle)


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    COGNATES ELL students?


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    Words ELL students?in two languages that share a similar meaning, spelling & pronunciation

    30-40% of English words have a related word in Spanish

    More easily related if students have literacy skills in L1

    COGNATES


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    READING FLUENCY INTERVENTIONS ELL students?

    REPEATED READINGS




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    PROGRESS MONITORING ELL students?


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    SYSTEMATIC ANALYSIS of LANGUAGE TRANSCRIPTS ELL students?

    DIAGNOSTIC MEASURES & PROGRESS MONITOR


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    EXAMPLE: ANA, AGE 7-3, GRADE 1 ELL students?

    • One day a little boy (he/'s um) he/'s be a :02 frog [EU].

    • And he is go/ing to your[EW:his] bed.

    • The frog, he/'s go/ing.

    • (When he/'s :02 when he/'s :04 s* :09) when he peek/3s up, the frog is not in the frasc*[CS].

    • He/'s call/ing to the frog.

    • But (not) not>

    • The dog, he/'s go/*ing down.

    • He/'s (ca*) call/ing to the frog.

    • "Frog, Frog".

    • (He/'s) he/'s call/ing and calling.

    • Then the dog, he/'s (:06 s*) call/ing too.

    • Then :04 he/'s :04 call/ing.

    • He/'s :04 be a :07 bird [EU].

    • The dog is :03 run/*ing.

    • And he go/3s up.

    • (And) one rock [EU].

    • He *is :02 call/ing and call/ing.

    • He is (go/ing in in) go/ing (to to) down.

    • He go/3s down.

    • He say/*3s, "Is *it over there"?

    • The boy said, "Shh".

    • And he busc*[CS] over there.

    • And he is over there.

    • And (he) his frog is in your[EW:his] hand.

    • He say bye to the (s*) nothers[EW:other] frog/s.


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    Diagnostic Assessment should include: ELL students?

    BEFORE TIER III


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    EDUCATIONAL HISTORY ELL students?

    • Educated in another country?

    • When started school?

    • Attendance?

    • Performance?

    • Remedial support?

    • Performance of students in that country?

    • Educated in other state/districts?

    • L1 literacy instruction?

    • Bilingual program?

    • Preschool?

    • Attendance?


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    FAMILY HISTORY ELL students?

    • Immigration status

    • Level of acculturation

    • Understanding of school expectations

    • Travel to home country?

    • Parents' English levels

    • Level of academic support

    • Dependence on child for translation


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    ASSESSING ELL students?PHONOLOGICAL AWARENESS

    In kindergarten ELLs at-risk for reading can be identified if PA is underdeveloped &/or they have difficulty learning sound-symbol correspondence...


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    BUT… ELL students?


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    Hammer & ELL students?Miccio (2006)

    BILINGUAL SLP SUPPORT

    Phonological awareness tasks:


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    ASSESSING IN L1 ELL students?


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    RHYMING ELL students?

    • Is not a strategy used in all languages

    • Recalling rhyming words is affected by a weak vocabulary

    • Recognizing rhyming words can be affected by semantic interference


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    What rhymes with...? ELL students?


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    ASSESSING ELL students?WORD READING SKILLS

    • Before asking the student to read

      • ensure verbal familiarity with the words in text

  • Discuss the topic & key words in text


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    ASSESSING IN L1 ELL students?


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    ASSESSING IN L1 ELL students?

    • Must be done by someone knowledgeable in common errors in L1

    • English also likely to impact performance in L1 if student exposed to English literacy instruction

      • Example:

        In Spanish  read “LL” as /L/ instead of /y/


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    ASSESSING ELL students?WORD READING SKILLS

    Error analysis is very important:

    • confusing vowel sounds?

    • dropping ending sounds?

    • difficulty with English-only phonemes?

    • allow for accent errors (is = iss)


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    ASSESSING READING FLUENCY ELL students?

    How many of the words did the student verbally know?


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    ASSESSING READING COMPREHENSION ELL students?

    • Oral Retelling (wpm)

      • Oral fluency is a big factor

    • Cloze Procedure

      • WJ-III: Passage Comprehension

      • Knowledge of syntax & vocabulary are big factors


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    CLOZE PROCEDURE ELL students?

    • He washed his face at the ______.

    • The dog ___ running.


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    ASSESSING READING COMPREHENSION ELL students?

    • Q & A

    • WIAT-II

    • BRI-10

    • Running Record


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    ASSESSING COMPREHENSION ELL students?

    • Read title/heading

      • “What do you think it will be about?”

      • access background knowledge

    • Read text aloud

      • mark errors

    • With text available

      • ask comprehension questions

      • use sentence starters


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    SENTENCE STARTERS ELL students?

    I think the boy felt _____ because ______.

    The story was about a dragon who______.

    After pouring in the flour, you need to _____.

    The story teaches us__________.


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    WHERE WAS THE TROUBLE? ELL students?

    • Important vocabulary

    • Background knowledge

    • Metaphors/Similes

    • Idioms

    “I’ve got butterflies in my stomach!”


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    Typically: ELL students?

    Increased phonics in TIER III

    Instead:

    may need to modify TIER II

    TIER II may be repeated many times

    WHAT FOLLOWS TIER II?


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    FOR OLDER STUDENTS: ELL students?

    TIER II SUPPORT

    • OR


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    TIER III ELL students?


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    May include any/all of the following: ELL students?

    Bilingual or ESL Teacher with background in literacy

    Special Education Teacher

    Reading Specialist

    Speech-Language Pathologist

    TIER III INTERVENTIONISTS

    with background in ELL needs


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    PHONEMIC AWARENESS HIERARCHY ELL students?

    ADAMS, 1990


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    PHONOLOGICAL AWARENESS: ELL students?SLP INVOLVEMENT

    Consultation OR Direct Services


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    BIRSH, 2005 ELL students?

    STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF WORDS


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    READING FLUENCY: INTERVENTIONS ELL students?

    • Choral/Echo Readings

    • Teach Phrasing & Intonation Directly

      • Study punctuation & grammar

      • Practice with 3 or 4 word phrases

      • Segmented sentences

        • E.g. The black cat * chased the mouse

      • Intonation & punctuation

        • E.g. Bird fly. Birds fly? Birds fly!

      • Intonation & stress

        • E.g. You get the car. You get the car

    BIRSH, 2005


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    VOCABULARY & GRAMMAR: ELL students?SLP INVOLVEMENT

    WORD CLASSIFICATION, CATEGORIZATION & USE:


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    VOCABULARY & GRAMMAR: ELL students?SLP INVOLVEMENT

    Consultation OR Direct Services


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    READING COMPREHENSION: ELL students?SLP INVOLVEMENT

    • Understanding parts of a sentence

      • Subject-Verb- Object

    • Increase sentence length

      • Example:

        • The cat ran away.

        • The big, mean, scary black cat ran quickly through the trees to get away from him owner.


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    CASE STUDIES ELL students?

    Let’s discuss each case:

    What assessments or information would you need to obtain to create appropriate Tier III interventions?


    Maria l.jpg

    MARIA ELL students?


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    MARIA ELL students?

    • Mom completed 9 years of school, but was illiterate

    • Dad completed 11 years of school, and was an alcoholic

    • Family & neighbors speak Spanish; parents hope to return to Mexico soon.

    • During testing Maria was anxious during English tests & relaxed during Spanish tests

    • Class observation: teacher spoke quickly, went through information once & discouraged clarification questions


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    MARIA'S SCORES ELL students?

    WJ-III: NU

    WISC-IV: SPANISH


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    NOW THAT YOU KNOW... ELL students?

    What interventions would be appropriate for Maria?


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    LIZBET ELL students?


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    LIZBET ELL students?

    • parents originally from Mexico; completed the primary grades.

    • language development was slow; mom concerned about her pronunciation of words.

    • attended 1 year of Head Start; was shy at the beginning, but did well.

    • Parents do not see any of the anxious behaviors at home; Lizbet completes her homework independently; stated she cannot read in English or Spanish


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    LIZBET'S SCORES ELL students?

    WJ-III: NU

    WISC-IV: SPANISH


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    NOW THAT YOU KNOW... ELL students?

    What interventions would be appropriate for Lizbet?


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    SUMMARY ELL students?

    ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNERS…

    • do benefit from the RTI process

    • are placed in classrooms that don’t provide appropriate ELL instruction

    • require intensive & systematic instruction

      • academic language & literacy skills

    • can attain grade level word reading skills

    • have greater difficulty attaining grade level reading comprehension & fluency skills.

    • benefit from the same reading intervention as monolingual peers

      • rate of progress may be different

    • have Tier II & III interventions for longer time periods


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    If there are different languages in the school ELL students?

    have select staff become experts on each language & be on the RTI team

    Use appropriate progress monitoring systems

    Diagnostic Assessment after Tier II

    Tier III interventionists need appropriate training in ELLs & literacy development

    Assign ELL students to teachers with training in ELL instruction

    Consult SLPs for vocabulary & language development activities

    WHAT SHOULD WE DO NOW?


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    WHAT ARE OUR ELL students?LONG TERM OBJECTIVES?

    • Professional Development

    • Principals need to understand appropriate ELL instruction to ensure fidelity

    • Teachers need training

      • School-wide

      • Professional advancement

        • specific teachers develop an expertise

  • Develop academic language instruction


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    WHAT ARE OUR ELL students?LONG TERM OBJECTIVES?

    • Find ways to engage ELL parents

    • Interpreters/translators

    • Home activities

    • Opportunities to volunteer

    • Resources


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    What resources does your district currently have? ELL students?

    Staff, media, volunteers, technology, materials

    How can these be used to provide better instruction, assessments, and/or interventions for your ELL students?

    What does your district need?

    TAKING STOCK


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    ACTION PLAN ELL students?


    References l.jpg
    References: ELL students?

    Adams, M.J. (1990). Beginning to Read: Thinking and Learning About Print. Cambridge MA: MIT Press.

    Birsh, J.R. (2005). Multisensory Teaching of Basic Language Skills. Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.

    Colorin Colorado. (2007). Reading comprehension strategies for English language learners. Retrieved from www.readingrockets.org/article/14342

    Colorín Colorado. (2007). Using cognates to develop comprehension in English. Retrieved from www.readingrockets.org/article/14307

    Delaware Department of Education. (2008). Annual Report of Delaware’s English Language Learners Staff & Programs.

    Echevarria, J., Vogt, M. & Short, D. (2008). Making Content Comprehensible for English Learners: The SIOP Model. Pearson Education, Inc.

    Francis, D. J., Rivera, M., Lesaux, N., Kieffer, M., & Rivera, H. (2006). Practical Guidelines for the Education of English Language Learners: Research-based Recommendations for Instruction and Academic Interventions. Center on Instruction.

    Gersten, R., Baker, S. K., Shanahan, T., Linan-Thompson, S., Collins, P., & Scarcella, R. (2007). Effective literacy and English language instruction for English learners in the elementary grades. U.S. Department of Education.


    References99 l.jpg
    References: ELL students?

    Hill, J. D. & Flynn, K. M. (2006). Classroom Instruction that Works with EnglishLanguage Learners. Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

    Klingner, J., Artiles, A., & Mendez Barletta, L. (2004). English language learners and learning disabilities: A critical review of the literature [Powerpoint]. Retrieved from www.nccrest.org/ELL_PPT/Klingner_Artiles_Barletta.ppt

    Lundgren, C. & Robertson, K. (n.d.) Comprehension: Helping English language learners grasp the full picture. Retrieved from www.readingrockets.org/webcasts/ondemand/1005

    Scarcella, R. (2003). Academic English: A Conceptual Framework. University of

    California Linguistic Minority Research Institute.

    Thomas, W. P. & Collier, V. P. (1997). School Effectiveness for Language Minority

    Students. National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education.

    WIDA Consortium (2007). English Language Proficiency Standards for English Language Learners in Pre-Kindergarten through Grade 5. Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System.

    Wright, Wayne E. (2008). Primary language support: Facilitating English language development and sheltered content instruction through effective use of students’ primary language(s) Message posted to www.niusileadscape.org/bl/?p=41


    References100 l.jpg
    References: ELL students?

    Goldstein, B. (2000). Cultural and Linguistic Diversity Research Guide for Speech-Language Pathologists. San Diego: Thomson Learning, Inc.

    Goldstein, B. (2005). Language & Culture: Assessment and Treatment of Diverse Populations. (unpublished PowerPoint presentation for CS 824 course at Temple University)

    Battle, D. (2002). Communication Disorders in Multicultural Populations. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann.

    Genesee, F. et al (2004). Dual Language Development & Disorders: A Handbook on Bilingualism & Second Language Learning. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.

    Bialystok, E. (2001). Bilingualism in Development: Language, Literacy, & Cognition. New York: Cambridge University Press.

    Goldstein, B. (2004). Bilingual Language Development & Disorders in Spanish-English Speakers. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.

    Kayser, H. (1995). Bilingual Speech-Language Pathology: An Hispanic Focus. San Diego: Thompson Learning, Inc.

    Cheng, L. (1995). Integrating Language & Learning for Inclusion: An Asian-Pacific Focus. San Diego: Singular Publishing Group, Inc.

    Dickinson, D. & Tabors, P. (2001). Beginning Literacy With Language: Young Children Learning at Home & School. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.

    Caesar, L.G. & Kohler, P.D. (2007). “The State of School-Based Bilingual Assessment: Actual Practice Versus Recommended Guidelines.” Language, Speech & Hearing Services in Schools. v38 ;3 pp190-200.

    August, D. et al (2006). Literacy Development in Elementary School Second Language Learners. Topics in Language Disorders v26;4 pp 351-364.