TERRAIN FLIGHT MISSION PLANNING. Terminal Learning Objective: At the completion of this lesson the student will be able to discuss and apply the concepts of terrain flight mission planning Condition: As a UH-60 student pilot.
Terminal Learning Objective: At the completion of this lesson the student will be able to discuss and apply the concepts of terrain flight mission planning Condition: As a UH-60 student pilot. Standard: In accordance with TC 1-237, Fort Rucker Terrain Flight Mission Planning Guide Safety Requirements: None Environmental Considerations: None
REFERENCES • TC 1-237 Aircrew Training Manual • Ft. Rucker Terrain Flight Mission Planning Guide • TC 1-201 Tactical Flight Procedures • TC 1-204 Night Flight • FM 90-4 Air Assault Operations
HOW THE UNIT RECEIVES THE MISSION • Aviation Support Request • Warning Order • Operations Order (OPORD) • Fragmentary Order (FRAGO)
TACTICAL FLIGHT MISSION PLANNING – TASK 2012 • Correctly analyze the mission • Perform a map or photo reconnaissance, and ensure hazards to flight are plotted • Select the appropriate terrain flight modes • Select appropriate primary and alternate routes • Determine the distance, groundspeed and ETE of each leg of the flight • Determine fuel required • Obtain and evaluate the weather briefing • Perform mission risk assessment per unit SOP • Conduct a thorough crew mission briefing.
ANALYZE THE MISSION METT-T MISSION - The Air Mission Commander analyzes the mission and determines the: • What • Why • When • Where • How of the Operation
ANALYZE THE MISSION METT-T ENEMY- • Identification • Location • Disposition • Strength • Morale • Capabilities • Composition • Probable courses of action
ANALYZE THE MISSION METT-T TERRAIN -The AMC must consider the following factors: • Dominant Terrain • Natural Features • Possible enemy attack points. • Built up areas • Hazards to flight • Friendly / Enemy Units. • Weather and Visibility.
ANALYZE THE MISSION METT-T TERRAIN - OCOKA • Observation and Fields of Fire • Cover and Concealment • Obstacles and Movement • Key Terrain • Avenues of Approach
ANALYZE THE MISSION METT-T TROOPS - the missions of the supported units and other units that may have an impact on the mission.
ANALYZE THE MISSION METT-T TIME - develop a time table for the flight. To do this, back plan from the mission time (H Hour) back through pre-mission planning to the present time.
PERFORM MAP OR PHOTO RECONNAISSANCE • PHOTOGRAPHY • TACTICAL 1:50,000 • JOG 1:250,000 • BEST WHEN CHUMMED AND HAZARDS UPDATED • VFR SECTIONAL 1:500,000 • FLIPS • USE CAUTION WHEN CHANGING FROM ONE MAP TO ANOTHER
PERFORM MAP RECONNAISSANCE THESE FACTORS MUST BE CONSIDERED DURING A MAP RECONNAISSANCE • Dominant Terrain • Natural Features • Possible Enemy Attack Points • Built-Up Areas • Crossroads • MSR’s • Hazards to Flight • Friendly and Enemy Units
SELECT MODES OF FLIGHT Low Level Contour Nap of the Earth
LOW LEVEL FLIGHT • Generally carried out above obstacles, but at an altitude where detection by a threat force is avoided or minimized. It usually is performed at a constant indicated altitude and A/S. • 80-200’ AHO
CONTOUR FLIGHT • Low altitude conforming generally to, and in proximity to, the contours of the earth. It is characterized by varying airspeeds and altitude as dictated by vegetation, obstacles, and ambient light. • 25-80’ AHO
NAP OF THE EARTH • Varying A/S as close to the earth’s surface as vegetation, obstacles, and ambient light will permit, while generally following the contours of the earth. • 0-25’ AHO • Not to exceed 40 KIAS (IAW the 1/212TH SOP, this pertains to both day and night operations)
SELECT PRIMARY AND ALTERNATE ROUTES • Start Point/ Release Points • Air Control Points • Communication Points • Check Points • Rally Points • Downed Aviator Pick-up Points • Preplanned Artillery and Tac Air
MISSION MAP PREP • Critical for mission success • Highlight hazards to flight with suitable pen • Enter route and ACPs on the map first • Mark lit towers, beacons, etc, out 10-15 k • Avoid over preparing the map • Transfer other map’s key features to JOG • Avoid exaggerating map features • Orient all notes in direction of flight
SYMBOLOGY AIR CONTROL POINT Course Line – A solid line placed on the map to mark routes flown at low level and contour. A dashed line is used to mark route segments flown at NOE START POINT AND RELEASE POINT LZ/PZ/OBJ 048 Heading to next ACP/waypoint 3+45 Time to next ACP/waypoint in minutes + seconds 14.5 Distance to next ACP/waypoint in KM
GENERAL ROUTE AND ACP PLANNING • Route Planning - Tactically sound & ease of Navigation • Avoid brightly lit areas, roads, populated areas • Avoid open areas or large bodies of water where terrain permits • Avoid navigational aides and airports • Plan the route to take advantage of cover and concealment • Plan to negotiate large valleys on lit or shadowed side depending on threat • Avoid flying into rising or setting sun or moon • Do not follow man-made linear features
GENERAL ROUTE AND ACP PLANNING • Route Planning - Continued • During multi-aircraft operations, avoid turns greater than 5 degrees once past the RP for landing • Avoid turns greater than 60 degrees • Select intermediate reference points with ETAs • Cross roads close to 90 degrees • Do not fly near populations or major roads • Compute time, distance, & headings for route, and use barriers & prominent map features • Plot time for prominent intersecting features
GENERAL ROUTE AND ACP PLANNING • Route Planning - Continued • Anticipate wires on roads, towers, & buildings in open fields • Plan alternate routes. At a minimum for any leg flown at contour or NOE • Minimize turns, ascents and descents, and airspeed changes during multi-helicopter operations • Conduct map reconnaissance to determine safe altitude
ACP AND CHECKPOINT PLANNING • Select unique features easily detectable at a distance • Checkpoints with high contrast • Select points away from towns • Select points away from bright lights • Select points easily confirmed with other features • Terrain association • Select points 5-20 kilometers apart
ACP AND CHECKPOINT PLANNING • Select points with good barriers • Ensure first and last points are easily identified and 3-5 kilometers from Start/End • Note MSL of each point • Select point for final approach leg offering alignment with landing direction • Choose prominent features in low visibility • Ensure points don’t fall in shadows • Should start time at initial takeoff and count cumulatively throughout the route
ROUTE PLANNING CARDS • Navigation Card • Contains essential navigation info (TDH) • Use suitable ink compatible with NVDs • Make all letter/number at least 1/4 inch high • Use common abbreviations and symbols (e.g., Heading (hdg), Kilometers (km), Degrees (°), Feet (‘), and Knots (kt) • Use remarks to describe pertinent information
ROUTE PLANNING CARDS • Landing Zone or Objective Card • May use to reinforce a map reconnaissance • An illustrated LZ or objective card provides a graphic picture of the landing area • Should depict size of LZ or objective area, landing & takeoff headings and hazards • Accurate as possible • Use standard symbols (TC 1-204, Fig 6-2)
LZ/PZ SELECTION TACTICAL • Mission. Determine if the mission can be accomplished from the selected LZ. • Location. Consider the distance of PZ/LZ from the supported unit or the objective. • Security. Consider size and proximity of threat elements.
LZ/PZ SELECTION TECHNICAL • Size. Determine if the size will support number of aircraft for the mission. Minimum recommended size 50 meters for a UH-60. • Landing Formation. Plan landing formation for size and shape of LZ. • Barriers. For mission requiring sling loads near maximum gross weight of aircraft, select LZ which have barriers of minimum vertical development. • Surface Conditions. Consider slopes; blowing sand or snow; concealed hazards; sources of rotor wash signature. • Obstacles. Plan approach and departure over lowest obstacles.
LZ/PZ SELECTION METEOROLOGICAL • Ceiling and Visibility • Winds. Consider the effects of winds when selecting approach and departure paths. • Pressure Altitude and Temperature. May limit loads and require more sorties. • Sun and Moon. Avoid planning approach or departure routes into a rising or setting sun or moon.
OBTAIN AND EVALUATE WEATHER BRIEFING • Sunset and Sunrise • Density Altitudes • Temperatures • Winds • Visibility Restrictions • Moonset and Moonrise • Ambient Light Levels
PERFORM MISSION RISK ASSESSMENT • Apply the five steps of the risk management process • Hazards to terrain flight • Physical Hazards • Natural Hazards • Weather Hazards • Human Hazards • Other Factors
CREW BRIEFING • The ability of individual crewmembers to work as a team is crucial to the success of the mission • The ability of the crew to interact collectively with other aircraft is crucial to the success of the mission • Inflight cockpit communications • Description • Direction • Distance • Speed
MISSION PLANNING AND BRIEFINGS • Planning considerations • Training missions should be as realistic as possible & all crew members should be involved with mission planning • Navigator should make final route selection • Charts & diagrams should be to scale & TDH should be double & triple checked • Remember to consider worst case situations
MISSION PLANNING AND BRIEFINGS • Briefing Considerations • Formal brief should allow time to adjust for problems raised during the brief • Final brief should be just before departure to update WX, confirm times, discuss changes • Brief entire mission in detail & hold individual flight briefings after formal brief. Each crew member should be able to discuss mission • Conduct final check on equipment & fix
REVIEW OF THE MISSION PROCCESS • Preparation and planning • Briefings • Rehearsals • Execution