Dawes Plan 1924 • The Dawes Plan was an attempt following WWI for the Triple Entente to collect war reparations debt from Germany. • Allied occupation of the Ruhr industrial area contributed to the hyperinflation crisis in Germany - disabling effect on the German economy. • provided for an end to the Allied occupation + staggered payment plan for Germany's payment of war reparations • Dawes won the Nobel Peace prize for ending an intl crisis • interim measure - proved unworkable. The Young Plan was adopted in 1929 to replace it.
Kellogg-Briand Pact 1928 • 1928 intl agreement - signatory states promised not to use war to resolve "disputes or conflicts of whatever nature or of whatever origin they may be, which may arise among them“. • Parties failing to abide by this promise "should be denied the benefits furnished by this treaty". It was signed by Germany, France and the United States on August 27, 1928, and by most other nations soon after. • Sponsored by France and the U.S., the Pact renounced the use of war and called for the peaceful settlement of disputes. • Similar provisions were incorporated into the UN Charter and other treaties and it became a stepping stone to a more activist American policy.
1930 Smoot-Hawley Tariff • Raised U.S. tariffs on over 20,000 imported goods to record levels (including 75 farm products) • Hoover’s attempt, against the advice of all economists to protect American farmers from international competition by raising agricultural tariffs. • Record high rates of this tariff probably had little impact on domestic prices or on overseas exporters • US exports cut in half between 1930 and 1932 • Some view the Act, and the ensuing retaliatory tariffs by U.S. trading partners, as responsible for reducing American exports and imports by more than half. • According to Ben Bernanke, "Economists still agree that Smoot-Hawley and the ensuing tariff wars were highly counterproductive and contributed to the depth and length of the global Depression."
Stimson Doctrine 1931 • Policy of the U.S. government enunciated in a note of January 7, 1932, to Japan and China, of non-recognition of international territorial changes that were executed by force. • Named after Henry L. Stimson, U.S. Secretary of State in the Hoover Administration (1929–1933), the policy followed Japan's unilateral seizure of Manchuriain northeastern China following action by Japanese soldiers at Mukden in 1931. • The doctrine was also invoked by U.S. Under-Secretary of State Sumner Welles in a declaration of July 23, 1940, that announced non-recognition of the Soviet annexation and incorporation of the three Baltic states— Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania —and remained the official U.S. position until the Baltic states regained independence in 1991. • Not the first time the U.S. had used non-recognition as a political tool or symbolic statement. President Wilson had refused to recognize the Mexican Revolutionary governments in 1913 and Japan's 21 demands upon China in 1915
Extract from the Stimson Doctrine ...the American Government deems it to be its duty to notify both the Imperial Japanese Government and the Government of the Chinese Republic that it cannot admit the legality of any situation de facto nor does it intend to recognize any treaty or agreement entered into between those Governments, or agents thereof, which may impair the treaty rights of the United States or its citizens in China, including those that relate to the sovereignty, the independence, or the territorial and administrative integrity of the Republic of China, or to the international policy relative to China, commonly known as the open door policy…
Good Neighbor Policy 1933 • Roosevelt’s new approach to Latin America • Inter-American Conference in Montevideo, Uruguay, December 1933, Secretary of State Cordell Hull signed a formal convention declaring: “No state has the right to intervene in the internal or external affairs of another.” • FDR attempted to win friends in Latin & South America. • This occurred after the “Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine” (Teddy Roosevelt) • U.S. interference was resented in the region in the early 1900’s. • Panama Canal • Virgin Islands
Recognition of the USSR 1933 • Relations characterized by mutual hostilities since the Bolshevik Revolution in 1917 • The U.S. extended its embargo of Germany to include Russia, and orchestrated a series of covert actions against Soviet Russia, including secretly funding its enemies. U.S. Secretary of State Robert Lansing yearned for a military dictatorship for Russia, of the type General Kornilov attempted to establish in 1917. • The United States sent troops to Siberia in 1918 to protect its interests from Cossacks with the United States landing thousands of troops at Vladivostok and at Arkhangelsk • November 16, 1933 The United States and the Soviet Union established formal diplomatic relations • President Roosevelt wrote to Soviet Foreign Minister Maxim Litvinov, "I am very happy to inform you that as a result of our conversations, the Government of the United States has decided to establish normal diplomatic relations with the Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and to exchange Ambassadors.”
Neutrality Acts 1935-39 Aim: limit U.S. involvement in future wars. They were based on the widespread disillusionment with World War I in the early 1930s and the belief that the United States had been drawn into the war through loans and trade with the Allies. 1935 Act banned munitions exports to belligerents and restricted American travel on belligerent ships. 1936 Act banned loans to belligerents. 1937 Act extended these provisions to civil wars and gave the president discretionary authority to restrict nonmunitions sales to a “cash‐and‐carry” basis 1939 banned U.S. ships from carrying goods or passengers to belligerent ports but allowed the U.S. to sell munitions, although on a “cash‐and‐carry” basis
Cash and Carry 1939 Cash and carry • policy requested by FDR at a special session of Congress on September 21, 1939. • replaced the Neutrality Acts of 1939. The revision allowed the sale of material to belligerents, as long as the recipients arranged for the transport using their own ships and paid immediately in cash, assuming all risk in transportation. • Though "cash and carry" concepts had been introduced in the Neutrality Act of 1936, it only pertained to materials that could not be used in war efforts.
Lend-Lease 1941 • The “cash and carry” not an effective measure after Germany began invading its neighbors. • After the fall of the Low Countries (Belgium and the Netherlands) and the invasion and capitulation of France, Roosevelt lobbied for the introduction of Lend-Lease • a plan in which the European allies didn't have to pay cash or arrange transportation any longer. Instead, the U.S. would demand payment at a later time. • program under which the U.S. supplied Great Britain, the USSR, Republic of China, Free France and other Allied nations with material between 1941 and August 1945. • Ended the US pretense of neutrality in the war
Five times U.S. has declared war: • Britain 1812 • Mexico 1848 • Spain 1898 • WWI 1917 • WWII 1941
III. The Post-War World: The United States Disseminates its Power in a Bi-Polar World • A.) The United States in the world in 1945-1949 • Collective Security—A system in which participating nations agree to take joint action to meet any threat to, or attack on another member. • *Idea helped to create the U.N. in 1945. • Deterrence---Policy of making America & its allies so strong that its very strength will deter (prevent) any attack.
Truman Doctrine • Greece & Turkey are on verge of collapse to communism and Truman is forced to make a momentous decision • Truman Doctrine • Policy of containment is introduced (Keenan) • Communism is evil and it must not be allowed to spread • 1947, Truman requested a massive program of economic & military aid to Europe
Marshall Plan • Part of the Truman doctrine • Marshall Plan: billions of dollars given to European nations to help them rebuild and survive • Help keep communism isolated • Aid given to Ally and Axis nations • Develop potential markets for US products in Europe
Marshall Plan Aid to Europe 1948-1952
Creation of the NSC and CIA • National Security Act of 1947 creates the Department of Defense • Pentagon is built • National Security Council is created to advise the President • NSC–68 allowed for the President to quadruple military spending • Peacetime draft is created • CIA Central Intelligence Agency
CIA • Three major tasks: • 1. To coordinate the information gathering activities of all State, Defense, & other federal agencies involved in the areas of foreign affairs & national defense. • 2. To analyze & evaluate all data collected by those agencies. • 3. To brief the President & NSC.
CIA • CIA conducts worldwide intelligence operations. • Espionage—Spying • Much of work in secret---budget is disguised.
Berlin Airlift 1948-1949 • Berlin Blockade---Split of Berlin into four sectors (Soviet, U.S., British, French.) • 1948, Soviets tried to force the other nations out, with a land blockade. • U.S. airlift for 1 ½ years.
NATO • Created in 1949 • A defensive alliance to protect from Soviet aggression • An attack on one is an attack on all • Warsaw pack is the Soviet response • US gets entangled in a foreign alliance • US hegemony by consensus
The Rio Pact • The Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance (commonly known as the Rio Treaty, the Rio Pact) was an agreement signed on 1947 in Rio de Janeiro among many countries of America. • The central principle contained in its articles is that an attack against one is to be considered an attack against them all; this was known as the "hemispheric defense" doctrine. • Cuban missile crisis; Falklands War, September 11, 2001 • Mexico withdrew in 2002, Bolivia, Ecuador, Nicaragua, Venezuela withdrew in 2012
Vandenberg • U.S. Senator • modified internationalist, in favor of U.S. membership on the World Court, but the situation in Europe moved him towards isolationism • his experiences during the Nye Committee hearings on the munitions industry, convinced him that entry into WWI had been a disastrous error • supported the isolationist Neutrality Acts of the 1930s • wanted and sponsored more severe bills designed to renounce all traditional neutral "rights" and restrict and prevent any action by the President that might cause the U.S. to be drawn into war. • One of the most effective of the diehard isolationists in the Senate
The Vandenberg Resolution • 1945, delivered a celebrated speech heard round the world in the Senate Chamber, publicly announcing his conversion from “isolationism” to “internationalism“ • 1947, at the start of the Cold War, Vandenberg became chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. cooperated with the Truman administration in forging bipartisan support for the Truman doctrine, the Marshall Plan, and NATO, including presenting the critical Vandenberg resolution. • The Vandenberg Resolution – • landmark action that opened the way to the negotiation of the North Atlantic Treaty. • concept of such an alliance first arose during the Pentagon Talks in Washington in March • American action would have been stymied without the Senate action endorsing an internationalist role for the United States
B.) 1950- 1961 U.S. Unilateral Intervention • Hydrogen Bomb 1952 • used the heat generated by a fission bomb to compress and ignite a nuclear fusion stage greatly increased explosive power. • Concept first developed and used in 1952 and has since been used in most of the world's nuclear weapons • first test of a hydrogen bomb prototype was the “Ivy Mike" nuclear test in 1952 conducted by the U.S. • The first ready-to-use thermonuclear bomb “”RDS-6s" ("Joe 4") was tested on August 12, 1953, in the Soviet Union
The Middle East • The U.S. in Iran 1953 • Coup d’état orchestrated by the U.S. and the UK • CIA published a false report to spark the coup • Prime Minister Mossedegh overthrown • Attempted to reduce power of the Shah – instate democracy • Nationalize Iranian oil industry (owned by Anglo-Iranian company)
Latin America • The U.S., United Fruit Company and and Guatemala 1954 • U.S. support of Latin American dictators • Kissinger, Secretary of State and Augusto Pinochet, dictator of Chili, 1976 • CIA support of coup d’état against socialist government of Salvador Allende
1954 Geneva Conference • US (alongwith France, UK, USSR & China) involved in talks to discussoutstanding issues: • KoreanPeninsula • Unifying Vietnam • Peacesettlement in Indochina: • Laos • Cambodia • Vietnam
Latin America • Cuban Missile Crisis 1962 • 13 days world on the brink of nuclear war • U2 spy planes detected Soviet arms build-up by 1962 (intermediate range missiles in Cuba) • Kennedy ordered a naval blockade • Prepared to invade Cuba • Talks between JFK & Krushchev, • US tradeoff proposal: Soviets agreed to withdraw missiles from Cuba and US agreed to withdraw missile from Turkey
Asia • Korean War 1950 • US foreign policy change: containment roll back • South Korea(non-communist) attacked by North Korea (communist) • War lasted three years, but peace terms never agreed upon. • U.S./South Korea (UN) vs. North Korea/China • After much back and forth manoeuvers, border remained the same as beginning of war: 38th parallel
Vietnam War • Really started in 1954, not 1965. • Ended in 1975. • U.S. rescued the French & the South Vietnamese, but sunk themselves. • After Vietnam, the Nixon administration embarked on a policy of détente. • Détente--- “a relaxation of tensions.” • Wanted to improve relations w/Soviet Union & China. • Soviet Union collapsed in 1991.
Persian Gulf War---1991 • Campaign to drive Iraq out of Kuwait. • International coalition, led by the U.S., launched Operation Desert Storm. • War ended less than six weeks later.
Armed Conflict • The Gulf War 1991 • Desert Shield / Desert Storm • Iraqi invasion of Kuwait
GEORGE H. W. BUSHFOURTY-FIRST PRESIDENT1989-1993 President, George H. W. Bush, is known for assembling the United Nations to send troops to the Gulf War when Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwait. The operation known as Desert Shield, was to remove Iraqi forces from Kuwait and ensure that Iraq did not invade Saudi Arabia. President Bush claimed that his position when he said, “This aggression will not stand,” and “ This is not a war for oil. This is war against aggression” After weeks of air bombardment and 100 hours of a land battle named Desert storm, allied troops over ran Iraq's million-man army.
TIMELIINE • August 2, 1990-Iraq invades Kuwait • August 7, 1990-President George Bush launches "Operation Desert Shield", sending American troops to try to stop an Iraqi attack on Saudi Arabia. First U.S. Fighter plains arrive in Saudi Arabia. • January 16-17, 1991-The air war begins. Bombers and cruise missiles strike at power plants and other important targets. Iraq attacks Israel with scud missiles .This air war last 42 days. • February 24, 1991-Allied ground assault begins. Iraqis leave Kuwait igniting an estimated 700 oil wells in Kuwait • February 28, 1991-Conclusion of war declared after 100 hours.
34 countries contributed to helping Kuwait • U.S. was 73% of the 956,600 troops • Soviet Union supplied Iraq with missiles • Arab nations allied with the U.S.
“I can’t say enough about the Army and Marine divisions. If I used words like brilliant, it would really be an under-description of the absolutely superb job they did in breaching the so-called impenetrable barrier. Absolutely superb textbook operation and I think it will be studied for many years to come as the way to do it” Quote by “General H. Norman Schwarzkopf, Jr.”
General H. Norman Schwarzkopf, Jr. • 1988, promoted to General and was appointed Commander-in-Chief of the U.S. Central Command • prepared a detailed plan for the defence of the oil fields of the Persian Gulf against an invasion by Iraq. • Schwarzkopf's plan was used as the basis for Operation Desert Storm. • His operational plan was the "left hook" strategy that went into Iraq behind the Iraqi forces who were occupying Kuwait. • widely credited with bringing the ground war to a close in just four days.
AFTER THE WAR At the end of the 100 hour-ground war in the gulf, America's leaders and military leaders basked in what appeared to be a success. Certainly in comparison with the gloomy predictions to the pre-war period, the military victory seemed good. Although American leaders remained unclear about their positions for post-war Iraq. They had failed to destroy Saddam's Republican Guard Divisions, which immediately set about destroying Shiite rebels in the south and they were uncertain about Saddam's potential to threaten his neighbours, America's allies.
IV. The United States in the World since the end of the Cold War: The Hyper-Power as World Police A.)The U.S. as World Arbitrator:
The Washington Accords 1993 • also known as the Oslo Accords • officially called the Declaration of Principles on Interim Self-Government Arrangements or Declaration of Principles (DOP) • an attempt in 1993 to set up a framework that would lead to the resolution of the ongoing Israeli-Palestinian conflict • first face-to-face agreement between the govt of Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO).
Department of Homeland Security • Charged w/ the task of protecting the U.S. from terrorism. • Terrorism—The use of violence to intimidate a government or society, usually for political or ideological reasons. • Created in 2002, operational in 2003. • Responsible for the coordination & the direction of all antiterrorist activities of all public agencies operating in the field of domestic security.
Homeland Security Act of 2002 • Gives the Homeland Security Department major operating responsibilities in five specific areas: • 1. Border & transportation security • 2. Infrastructure protection • 3. Emergency preparedness & response • 4. Chemical, biological, radiological, & nuclear defense • 5. Information analysis
Since 9/11 • foreign policy has had to focus on terrorism and what to do with nations that have harbored terrorists • Superpower status in a unipolar world still leaves the U.S. vulnerable both here and abroad to terrorist attacks • Al Qaida • “Axis of Evil”----consisting of Iraq, Iran, North Korea.
Reading Assignments Part 2 Mastering Modern World History by Norman Lowe • Part 1 War and International Relations • 8. The Spread of Communism outside Europe and its effects on international relations, pp. 142-168 • 9. The United Nations Organization, pp. 170-190 • Part IV The United States of America • 22.4 The impact of war and the Russian revolutions, pp. 465-466 • 23.4 Nixon and Watergate; Foreign Policy, p. 496. Jimmy Carter, pp. 497. Reagan and foreign policy problems, pp. 499 The Unfinished Nation by Alan Brinkley • Chapter 28: America in a World at War: • The Pacific Offensive, p. 743 • The Manhattan Project and Atomic Warfare, p. 744 • Debating the Past: The decision to drop the atomic bomb, p. 745-748 • Chapter 31: the ordeal of liberalism • Flexible Response and the Cold War, pp. 824-827 • The Agony of Vietnam, pp. 827-830 • Chapter 32: The Crisis of Authority • Nixon, Kissinger, and the War, pp. 860-865 • Chapter 33: From the Age of Limits to the Age of Reagan • Human Rights and National Interests, pp. 882-883 • The Year of the Hostages, pp. 883-884 • Reagan and the World, pp. 895-896 • The Bush Presidency & the Gulf War, pp. 901-904