GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD. by Mary Figueredo Carlos Guzman Carmen Huzum Agnes Pawelkowska. What is GM Plant?. A GM plant contains a gene or genes which have been artificially inserted instead of the plant acquiring them through pollination. GM CROPS Source:Colorado State University.
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-GM crops offer prospects of reducing input costs or making planting more flexible
-technology allows farmers to reduce their use of chemical pesticides (more environment – friendly practices)
-GM food improves freshness and taste
-GM food enriches nutrition
-GM food decreases allergencity and lowers fat content
-technology holds promise for enhancing agricultural productivity and for improving nutrition In developing countries
- distribution problem can be resolved by graining GM crops in poor countries (overcome the world hunger).
-a biotechnology and agricultural trade program ,aimed at barriers to the export of the US products through biotechnology (section 3209)
-competitive grants for biotechnology risk assessment research (section 7210)
-agricultural biotechnology research and and development for developing countries (section 7505)
-a program of public education on the use of biotechnology in producing food for human consumption (section 10802)
-the US Department of Agriculture(USDA)
-Environmental Protection Agency(EPA)
-the Food and Drug Administration(FDA)
------potential environmental impact
- domination of world food production by a few companies
-increasing dependence on industrialized nation by developing countries
-Member State, Scientific Committees, Commission, Council of Ministers
-until 1998 18 GMOs applications have authorized in the EU;
2 cases still not implemented by the Member State.
-since Oct.1998, no further authorization
- Food safety, technical barriers to trade, and intellectual property rights protection.
- Biodiversity and non-scientific concerns.
An importing country may refuse the GM shipment if there are undue risks identified through a science-based risk assessment.
Countries may consider “socio-economic factors” in their reviews.
A “precautionary principle”may be applied to block GM imports which could be harmful to biological diversity without complete scientific certainty.The Biosafety Protocol (BSP) Provides that
-Establishes rules and procedures to ensure that measures address health concerns.
- Establishes rules and procedures to develop standards, technical regulations, and assessment procedures
-Domestic regulatory regimes pertaining to intellectual property must provide protection to goods produced using biotechnology.