¾ News Briefing Winnie chen
Today: americas/asia integration Krusty the Clown!!!
Simpsons • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lCeJmmCFXTk
Ok, Back to news briefing. • What’s different today? • More discussion!!! Yay!!! :D • …Less topics. No!!! • What kind of news? • What the heck happened over the winter break?! • Scope: December 2012~March 2013
Europe: horsemeat scandal • January 2013: Horsemeat, pork and chicken were found in products labeled “beef” • DNA investigations have been run through food industries and suppliers all over Europe • Not harmful, but considered “taboo” in many countries • Europe-> FRENZY!!!! • Iris & Samer: Experience in Germany
short discussion • Discuss the following with your group: • 1. Could you imagine this happening in Taiwan? How would you react? • 2. What if it happened in Taiwan, and it was not horsemeat, but dog meat? Would it be more unacceptable, and why? • 3. Europe is spending a lot of money to run investigations, possibly making funding more difficult in other areas. As a consumer, would you still consume beef if investigations were less thorough(徹底)? ???
India: post 2012 Delhi gang rape case • Rape: 16/12/2012. 6 men, one underage. Currently on trial • Plead: Not guilty?! Face charges under the Indian Penal Code • Protests throughout India, South Asia, the world
UN Action • UN Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women (called on governments of India, Delhi): “to do everything in their power to take up radical reforms, ensure justice and reach out with robust public services to make women’s lives more safe and secure”
Criminal law (amendment) ordinance, 2013 • Amendments to the Indian Law on sex offences • Added new offenses (acid attack, sexual harassment, voyeurism, stalking, attempts…) • Amended section 370 on human trafficking/employment • Still lacks some suggestions from the Verma Committee Report (marital rape, reduction of age of consent) et.
Short discussion • Rape in Taiwan is rarer and often less brutal. Why? Do you think the rape law in Taiwan is sufficient, and effectively prevents rape? • Women’s rights in Taiwan: Have we achieved gender equality? Consider aspects such as sports, social opportunities, employment etc. • Are women’s statuses similar in East Asia? Try comparing to China, Japan and Korea. Why and why not?
2013. 03. 04 Regional Integration -America and Asia Joey, Eva, Shaune, Luc
POP QUIZ! • TPP • NAFTA • CARICOM • MERCOSUR • ECFA
Integration! The key word:
What is integration anyway? • The process by which supranational institutions replace national ones－the gradual shifting upward of sovereignty from state to regional or global structures. 整合，名詞，意指集結不同的意見或事物，重新統合，成為新的整體。 整合，名詞，意指集結不同的意見或事物，重新統合，成為新的整體。
What drives integration? • Self-interest • Pursuit of power • Rationality and calculation • BOP= Balance of Power • States’ decisions • Rooted in both idealism and realism • Integration Theory (Functionalism) • Issue of sovereignty • Information and transportation • Telephones, radio, television, films, Internet… • Time-space convergence • Human goodness by nature • Cooperation > confrontation • Collective Security • Eternal peace
Stages of integration In terms of economic integration • PTA • FTA • Reduction of most trade barriers • Different external tariffs • Customs Union • Common external policy no re-exports • Common Market • Free movement of factors of production • Economic Union • More harmonized policies in fiscal, monetary and other aspects
1823, with the Monroe Doctrine, the US has stated that “The Americas are for Americans”
NorthAmericaFreeTradeAgreement Presented by Eva Huang
Facts • Signed by three countries: • USA • Canada • Mexico • CameintoforceonJan.1,1994 • Theworld’s largest free trade area • EU v.s. NAFTA: • NAFTA doesn’t go beyond countries’ law and sovereignty
Goal • Goal: to eliminate trade& investment barrier • Trade liberalization • Implementation • Protection of foreign investment • Market access for goods • Tariff reduction on most products • Protection for Intellectual Property • Commitment to the environment • Labor cooperation
Achievements • Since NAFTA came into effect, merchandise trade among the NAFTA partners has more than tripled. • Since NAFTA came into effect, the North American economy has more than doubled in size. • North American employment levels have climbed nearly 23% since 1993.
ProsofNAFTA • Boosted U.S. farm exports • Elimination of high Mexican tariffs • Mexico: the top export destination for U.S. beef, rice, corn….etc. • Reduced oil and grocery prices • Import of oil from Mexico and Canada • Reduced the dependence on Middle East • Spurred investment and growth for small businesses • Lower cost of trading • Loosened restrictions on investments
disputes • Agriculture negotiatedtrilaterally • U.S.-Mexico agriculture agreement • Mexico: Insufficient infrastructure for competition
Cons of NAFTA • U.S. jobs were lost • California, New York, Michigan and Texas • motor vehicles, textiles, computers, and electrical appliances • Mexico's Farmers Were Put Out of Business • Not competitive enough • Mexico government didn’t provide as much subsidies as U.S. government did
Cons of NAFTA • MaquiladoraWorkers Were Exploited • Mexican workers near the border to cheaply assemble products for export to the U.S. • no labor rights or health protections • Mexico's Environment Deteriorated • Use of more fertilizer and chemicals • Deforestation
Regional Integration—Latin America 2013/3/3 Shaune Wang
A Brief History 19thcentury
Bolivar’s Dream • Simón Bolívar • After 1810 • Wars of Independence
Bolivar’s Dream • At that time, people identified with Spanish America as a whole • Bolívar began to propose the creation of various large states and confederations • In 1819, Gran Colombia • In 1825, Bolivian Federation/Andean Confederation Fail!
Bolivar’s Dream • AmphictyonicCongress/Congress of Panama (1826) • A separate league for newly independent Spanish republics • drafted a "Treaty of Union, League, and Perpetual Confederation" Gran Colombia was the only one to ratify it Fail!
The result of Bolivar’s Dream • Federal Republic of Central America • United Provinces of South America • The Empire of Brazil • Gran Colombia Fail! Fail! Awkard Bolivar Fail!
Pan-Amercian Union • In 1889, 18 nations held its 1st conference • To promote trade • An international organization for cooperation on trades and other issues To be continued…
What’s the Bolivar’s Dream? • Latin American politicians often speak of regional integration as "Bolivar's dream." My Dream is going to be revived! Kerker
A Brief History 20th century
Post WWII • After the World War, many nations thought it dangerous to remain a unilateral actor
Rio Treaty • 1947 • The Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance • A system of collective security • 21 nations—including USA
Organization of American States • Pan-American Union • 21 member states—including Marshall from USA • pledged to fight communism • Began functioning in 1951
Latin America and Europe • A need for an alternative organization (Other than UN) • Reached out to Europe (esp. formal colonial countries) • In 1991, Mexico, Brazil and Spain: IberoamericanCommunity of Nations
Nowadays Difference organizations
Various Organizations • LAIA –Latin American Integration Association • MERCOSUR • Andean Community of Nations (ANCOM) • Bolivarian Alternative to Latin America and the Caribbean (known by its Spanish acronym ALBA) / People’s Trade Agreement • The South-American Union of Nations (UNASUR) • The G-3 • Central American Common Market (CACM) • Association of Caribbean States (ACS) • Caribbean Community (CARICOM)
Background • Latin American countries responded by developing an industrialization process that was oriented towards their own domestic market • Import substitution industrialization • Constructing free trade areas
The Latin American Free Trade Association (LAFTA) • 1960 Treaty of Montevideo • Argentina, Chile, Brazil, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay • In hope of creating a common market in Latin America and offered tariff rebates among member nations • Represented (and still represents) around 85% of all of Latin America and the Caribbean
The Latin America Integration Association • 1980, LAFTA reorganized into ALADI • 14 members • Was created with a more flexible and more limited role of encouraging free trade • To create a Latin American common market in the long run
Mercado Común del Sur—SouthernCommonMarket • Established in 1991 • 5 member states: Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay, Venezuela • Its purpose is to promote free trade and fluid movement of goods, people, and currency. • A full custom union 關稅同盟
The Central American Common Market (CACM) • 1960 • 5 central American nations: Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, and later joined by Costa Rica • In response to the need of member countries to cooperate with each other to attract industrial capital and diversify their economies Honduras Guatemala Nicaragua El Salvador Costa Rica Panama
The Central American Common Market (CACM) • By the late 1960s the CACM had made considerable progress • In 1969, however, Honduras and El Salvador broke off commercial and diplomatic relations during their so-called “Soccer War.” • Suspended its activities in the mid-1980s. • By 1993, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua had ratified a new Central American Free Trade Zone
Actually… • Organizations such as the MERCOSUR was linked to US pressure • After all, in 1823, the Monroe Doctrine has stated that “The Americas are for Americans”