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Data Communication and Networks. Lecture 11 Internet Routing Algorithms and Protocols December 5, 2002 Joseph Conron Computer Science Department New York University conron@cs.nyu.edu. Some Perspective on Routing …. When we wish to take a long trip by car, we consult a road map.

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data communication and networks

Data Communication and Networks

Lecture 11

Internet Routing

Algorithms and Protocols

December 5, 2002

Joseph Conron

Computer Science Department

New York University

conron@cs.nyu.edu

some perspective on routing
Some Perspective on Routing …..
  • When we wish to take a long trip by car, we consult a road map.
  • The road map shows the possible routes to our destination.
  • It might show us the shortest distance, but, it can’t always tell us what we really want to know:
    • What is the fastest route!
    • Why is this not always obvious?
  • Question: What’s the difference between you and an IP Packet?
packets are dumb students are smart
Packets are Dumb, Students are Smart!
  • We adapt to traffic conditions as we go.
  • Packets depend on routers to choose how they get their destination.
  • Routers have maps just like we do. These are called routing tables.
  • What we want to know is:
    • How to these tables get constructed/updated?
    • How are routes chosen using these tables?
static vs dynamic routing
Static Vs. Dynamic Routing
  • Routes are static if they do not change.
    • Route table is loaded once at startup and all changes are manual
    • Computers at the network edge use static routing.
  • Routes are dynamic if the routing table information can change over time (without human intervention.
    • Internet routers use dynamic routing.
dynamic routing and routers
Dynamic Routing and Routers
  • To insure that routers know how to reach all possible destinations, routers exchange information using a routing protocol.
  • But, we cannot expect every router to know about every other router.
    • Too much Internet traffic would be generated.
    • Tables would be huge (106 routers)
    • Algorithms to choose “best” path would never terminate.
  • How to handle this?
autonomous systems as
Autonomous Systems (AS)
  • Routers are divided into groups known as an autonomous systems (AS).
  • ASs communicate using an Exterior Routing Protocol (Intra-AS Routing)
  • Routers within an AS communicate using an Interior Routing Protocol (Inter-AS Routing)
why different intra and inter as routing
Why different Intra and Inter-AS routing ?

Policy:

  • Inter-AS: admin wants control over how its traffic routed, who routes through its net.
  • Intra-AS: single admin, so no policy decisions needed

Scale:

  • hierarchical routing saves table size, reduced update traffic

Performance:

  • Intra-AS: can focus on performance
  • Inter-AS: policy may dominate over performance
routing algorithms
Graph abstraction for routing algorithms:

graph nodes are routers

graph edges are physical links

link cost: delay, $ cost, or congestion level

5

3

5

2

2

1

3

1

2

1

A

D

E

B

F

C

Routing protocol

Routing Algorithms

Goal: determine “good” path

(sequence of routers) thru

network from source to dest.

  • “good” path:
    • typically means minimum cost path
    • other def’s possible
routing algorithm classification
Static or dynamic?

Static:

routes change slowly over time

Dynamic:

routes change more quickly

periodic update

in response to link cost changes

Routing Algorithm classification
routing algorithm classification1
Routing Algorithm classification
  • Global or decentralized?
  • Global:
    • all routers have complete topology, link cost info
    • “link state” algorithms
  • Decentralized:
    • router knows physically-connected neighbors, link costs to neighbors
    • iterative process of computation, exchange of info with neighbors
    • “distance vector” algorithms
a link state routing algorithm
Dijkstra’s algorithm

net topology, link costs known to all nodes

accomplished via “link state broadcast”

all nodes have same info

computes least cost paths from one node (‘source”) to all other nodes

gives routing table for that node

Iterative

after k iterations, know least cost path to k dest.’s

A Link-State Routing Algorithm
a link state routing algorithm1
A Link-State Routing Algorithm
  • Notation:
  • c(i,j): link cost from node i to j. cost infinite if not direct neighbors
  • D(v): current value of cost of path from source to dest. V
  • p(v): predecessor node along path from source to v, that is next v
  • N: set of nodes whose least cost path definitively known
dijsktra s algorithm
Dijsktra’s Algorithm

1 Initialization:

2 N = {A}

3 for all nodes v

4 if v adjacent to A

5 then D(v) = c(A,v)

6 else D(v) = infty

7

8 Loop

9 find w not in N such that D(w) is a minimum

10 add w to N

11 update D(v) for all v adjacent to w and not in N:

12 D(v) = min( D(v), D(w) + c(w,v) )

13 /* new cost to v is either old cost to v or known

14 shortest path cost to w plus cost from w to v */

15 until all nodes in N

dijkstra s algorithm example

5

3

5

2

2

1

3

1

2

1

A

D

E

B

F

C

Dijkstra’s algorithm: example

D(B),p(B)

2,A

2,A

2,A

D(D),p(D)

1,A

D(C),p(C)

5,A

4,D

3,E

3,E

D(E),p(E)

infinity

2,D

Step

0

1

2

3

4

5

start N

A

AD

ADE

ADEB

ADEBC

ADEBCF

D(F),p(F)

infinity

infinity

4,E

4,E

4,E

dijkstra s algorithm discussion
Algorithm complexity: n nodes

each iteration: need to check all nodes, w, not in N

n*(n+1)/2 comparisons: O(n**2)

more efficient implementations possible: O(nlogn)

Oscillations possible:

e.g., link cost = amount of carried traffic

A

A

A

A

D

D

D

D

B

B

B

B

C

C

C

C

2+e

2+e

0

0

1

1

1+e

1+e

0

e

0

0

Dijkstra’s algorithm, discussion

1

1+e

0

2+e

0

0

0

0

e

0

1

1+e

1

1

e

… recompute

… recompute

routing

… recompute

initially

distance vector routing algorithm
iterative:

continues until no nodes exchange info.

self-terminating: no “signal” to stop

asynchronous:

nodes need not exchange info/iterate in lock step!

distributed:

each node communicates only with directly-attached neighbors

Distance Table data structure

each node has its own

row for each possible destination

column for each directly-attached neighbor to node

example: in node X, for dest. Y via neighbor Z:

distance from X to

Y, via Z as next hop

X

=

D (Y,Z)

Z

c(X,Z) + min {D (Y,w)}

=

w

Distance Vector Routing Algorithm
distance table example

cost to destination via

E

D ()

A

B

C

D

A

1

7

6

4

B

14

8

9

11

D

5

5

4

2

1

7

2

8

1

destination

2

A

D

E

B

C

E

E

E

D (C,D)

D (A,D)

D (A,B)

B

D

D

c(E,D) + min {D (A,w)}

c(E,D) + min {D (C,w)}

c(E,B) + min {D (A,w)}

=

=

=

w

w

w

=

=

=

2+3 = 5

8+6 = 14

2+2 = 4

Distance Table: example

loop!

loop!

distance table gives routing table

cost to destination via

E

D ()

A

B

C

D

A

1

7

6

4

B

14

8

9

11

D

5

5

4

2

destination

Distance table gives routing table

Outgoing link

to use, cost

A

B

C

D

A,1

D,5

D,4

D,2

destination

Routing table

Distance table

distance vector routing overview
Iterative, asynchronous: each local iteration caused by:

local link cost change

message from neighbor: its least cost path change from neighbor

Distributed:

each node notifies neighbors only when its least cost path to any destination changes

neighbors then notify their neighbors if necessary

wait for (change in local link cost of msg from neighbor)

recompute distance table

if least cost path to any dest has changed, notify neighbors

Distance Vector Routing: overview

Each node:

distance vector algorithm
Distance Vector Algorithm:

At all nodes, X:

1 Initialization:

2 for all adjacent nodes v:

3 D (*,v) = infty /* the * operator means "for all rows" */

4 D (v,v) = c(X,v)

5 for all destinations, y

6 send min D (y,w) to each neighbor /* w over all X's neighbors */

X

X

X

w

distance vector algorithm cont
Distance Vector Algorithm (cont.):

8 loop

9 wait (until I see a link cost change to neighbor V

10 or until I receive update from neighbor V)

11

12 if (c(X,V) changes by d)

13 /* change cost to all dest's via neighbor v by d */

14 /* note: d could be positive or negative */

15 for all destinations y: D (y,V) = D (y,V) + d

16

17 else if (update received from V wrt destination Y)

18 /* shortest path from V to some Y has changed */

19 /* V has sent a new value for its min DV(Y,w) */

20 /* call this received new value is "newval" */

21 for the single destination y: D (Y,V) = c(X,V) + newval

22

23 if we have a new min D (Y,w)for any destination Y

24 send new value of min D (Y,w) to all neighbors

25

26 forever

X

X

w

X

X

w

X

w

distance vector algorithm example1

2

1

7

Y

Z

X

X

c(X,Y) + min {D (Z,w)}

c(X,Z) + min {D (Y,w)}

D (Y,Z)

D (Z,Y)

=

=

w

w

=

=

7+1 = 8

2+1 = 3

X

Z

Y

Distance Vector Algorithm: example
distance vector link cost changes

1

4

1

50

X

Z

Y

Distance Vector: link cost changes

Link cost changes:

  • node detects local link cost change
  • updates distance table (line 15)
  • if cost change in least cost path, notify neighbors (lines 23,24)

algorithm

terminates

“good

news

travels

fast”

distance vector link cost changes1

60

4

1

50

X

Z

Y

Distance Vector: link cost changes

Link cost changes:

  • good news travels fast
  • bad news travels slow - “count to infinity” problem!

algorithm

continues

on!

distance vector poisoned reverse

60

4

1

50

X

Z

Y

Distance Vector: poisoned reverse

If Z routes through Y to get to X :

  • Z tells Y its (Z’s) distance to X is infinite (so Y won’t route to X via Z)
  • will this completely solve count to infinity problem?

algorithm

terminates

comparison of ls and dv algorithms
Message complexity

LS: with n nodes, E links, O(nE) msgs sent each

DV: exchange between neighbors only

convergence time varies

Speed of Convergence

LS: O(n**2) algorithm requires O(nE) msgs

may have oscillations

DV: convergence time varies

may be routing loops

count-to-infinity problem

Comparison of LS and DV algorithms
comparison of ls and dv algorithms1
Comparison of LS and DV algorithms
  • Robustness: What happens if router malfunctions?
  • LS:
    • node can advertise incorrect link cost
    • each node computes only its own table
  • DV:
    • DV node can advertise incorrect path cost
    • each node’s table used by others
      • error propagates thru network
interior router protocol irp
Interior Router Protocol (IRP)
  • Passes routing information between routers within AS
  • May be more than one AS in internet
  • Routing algorithms and tables may differ between different AS
  • Routers need some info about networks outside their AS
  • Use exterior router protocol (ERP)
  • IRP needs detailed model
  • ERP supports summary information on reachability
interior routing
Interior Routing
  • Also known as Interior Gateway Protocols (IGP)
  • Passes routing information between routers within AS
  • Most common IGPs:
    • RIP: Routing Information Protocol
    • OSPF: Open Shortest Path First
  • Routing algorithms and tables may differ between different AS
rip routing information protocol
RIP ( Routing Information Protocol)
  • Distance vector algorithm
  • Included in BSD-UNIX Distribution in 1982
  • Distance metric: # of hops (max = 15 hops)
    • Can you guess why?
  • Distance vectors: exchanged every 30 sec via Response Message (also called advertisement)
  • Each advertisement: route to up to 25 destination nets
ospf open shortest path first
OSPF (Open Shortest Path First)
  • “open”: publicly available
  • Uses Link State algorithm
    • LS packet dissemination
    • Topology map at each node
    • Route computation using Dijkstra’s algorithm
  • OSPF advertisement carries one entry per neighbor router
  • Advertisements disseminated to entire AS (via flooding)
border gateway protocol bgp
Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)
  • For use with TCP/IP internets
  • Preferred EGP of the Internet
  • Procedures
    • Neighbor acquisition
    • Neighbor reachability
    • Network reachability
internet exterior routing bgp
Internet Exterior Routing: BGP
  • BGP messages exchanged using TCP.
  • BGP messages:
    • OPEN: opens TCP connection to peer and authenticates sender
    • UPDATE: advertises new path (or withdraws old)
    • KEEPALIVE keeps connection alive in absence of UPDATES; also ACKs OPEN request
    • NOTIFICATION: reports errors in previous msg; also used to close connection
bgp procedure
BGP Procedure
  • Open TCP connection
  • Send Open message
    • Includes proposed hold time
  • Receiver selects minimum of its hold time and that sent
    • Max time between Keep alive and/or update messages
bgp message types
BGP Message Types
  • Keep Alive
    • To tell other routers that this router is still here
  • Update
    • Info about single routes through internet
    • List of routes being withdrawn
    • Includes path info
      • Origin (IGP or EGP)
      • AS_Path (list of AS traversed)
      • Next_hop (IP address of border router)
      • Multi_Exit_Disc (Info about routers internal to AS)
      • Local_pref (Inform other routers within AS)
      • Atomic_Aggregate, Aggregator (Uses address tree structure to reduce amount of info needed)
uses of as path and next hop
Uses of AS_Path and Next_Hop
  • AS_Path
    • Enables routing policy
      • Avoid a particular AS
      • Security
      • Performance
      • Quality
      • Number of AS crossed
  • Next_Hop
    • Only a few routers implement BGP
      • Responsible for informing outside routers of routes to other networks in AS
bgp routing information exchange
BGP Routing Information Exchange
  • Within AS, router builds topology picture using IGP
  • Router issues Update message to other routers outside AS using BGP
  • These routers exchange info with other routers in other AS
  • Routers must then decide best routes