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End of Unit Revision – Agriculture

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  1. End of Unit Revision – Agriculture AQA “A” GCSE Geography Click here to Continue

  2. Main Menu Changes in Farming Types of Farming Diversification The Green Revolution Farming Systems Factors Affecting Farming Subsistence Farming in the Ganges Delta Farming in the Developing World Exit

  3. Changes in Farming Increase in Population Government & EU Policies Return to Main Menu

  4. Changes in Farming – Increase in Population Mechanisation Agribusiness Return to Menu Return to Main Menu

  5. Mechanisation • Mechanisation is the high use of machinery, particularly in Arable farming or Market Gardening. • Machines are labour saving and efficient cutting down on labour. • Combine Harvesters are best on Large fields, hedgerows are in the way and therefore inaccessible by tractors, hedgerow removal must take place for efficiency, this is mainly a feature of arable farming. Return to Changes in Farming

  6. Agribusiness • Agribusiness is large companies buying up arable farms. Companies like Birds Eye are buying up farms and even financial companies like Scottish Widows. Agribusiness plays a huge part in arable farming, particularly in East Anglia. • Companies often own large scale farms, these are capital intensive. • “Farm Managers” run each farm. • Agribusiness uses high technology and agrochemicals such as fertilisers and pesticides to obtain maximum yields from the land. Return to Changes in Farming

  7. Government & EU Policies (Including C.A.P) • Agriculture now has a lot of financial support from the Government because of the UK’s membership to the EU. The government can alter which crops are grown buy increasing subsidies for a particular crop and lowering subsidies for other crops. Farmers closely monitor subsidy prices. • The C.A.P has been very costly for the E.U, and over produce can lead to Grain Mountains or Milk Lakes. • Farmers now use more pesticides and Herbicides to obtain the maximum yield from their crops. Return to Changes in Farming

  8. Types of Farming Dairying – This is mostly found in the West. Good relief is desirable for cows. Sedentary – The farmer stays in one place. Arable – Crop growing mostly found in the South East because of the flat relief Types of Farming Nomadic – The Farmer moves around. Pastoral – Sheep Cows Pigs etc. Mostly found in North & West because of the Poor Relief Subsistence - For the farmer and his family ONLY Hill Sheep Farming - Mostly found in the North because of the poor relief, the less profitable type of farming. Commercial – Produce sold for a profit Return to Main Menu

  9. Diversification • Diversification is a farmer branching out into other activities. Other Crops/Animals Llamas – Very Valuable Coats Power Generation – e.g. Elephant Grass Tourism Organic Farming Popular – Higher Prices How can I Diversify? Forestry Environmental Initiatives Maintain Dry Stone Walls – LARGE PAYMENT Sporting Activities e.g. Quad biking, Sailing, Paintballing Return to Main Menu

  10. The Green Revolution Overview Pro’s & Con’s Comparison HYV’S Return to Main Menu

  11. The Green Revolution - Overview • The Green Revolution was brought in in the 1960’s by the Indian Government, at the time India was experiencing a rapid population growth. THE RICH GOT RICHER, THE POOR GOT POORER Return to Green Revolution

  12. HYV’s (High Yield Varieties) • Drought Resistant • Fast Growing • More fertilisers were needed. • Grants/Loans were widely available. • Crops were irrigated Causing the soil to become salty. Return to Green Revolution

  13. Good Points Yields Increased Other crops could be grown, e.g. sweet corn, adding variation to diet. More money could be earned. Higher standard of Life Bad Points Not very cheep. HYV’s were not available to peasants. People got into mass debt and were unable to repay it The Green Revolution – Pro’s & Con’s Return to Green Revolution

  14. The Green Revolution Comparison Return to Green Revolution

  15. Farming Systems Farming Systems Definition Farming System Diagram Return to Main Menu

  16. Definitions – Farming Systems Inputs = Physical and Human raw materials that go into the Farming system Processes = The activities required to turn inputs into outputs. Usually end in “ing” Outputs = The end products of the farming system Click to see a Farming System Return to Farming System Menu

  17. Farming Systems - Diagram Physical Inputs Climate Relief Soils Processes Ploughing Sowing crops Weeding Crop spraying Grazing Lambing Sheering Milking Fencing fields Outputs Cereal crops Vegetables Flowers Fruit Calves Lambs Wool Milk Lamb Beef Human Inputs Labour Vet Farm Size Technology Markets Transport Animal Feed Chemicals Fertilisers Seeds Subsidies Animals Return to Farming System Menu

  18. Factors Affecting Farming Physical Factors Human Factors Main Menu

  19. Factors Affecting Farming - Physical Rainfall Climate & Temperature Sunshine Hours Soil Type Relief Return to Factors Affecting Farming

  20. Factors Affecting Farming - Human Labour Finance Market Government Policy Tradition Return to Factors Affecting Farming

  21. Rainfall • All crops and animals require a reliable source of water. Cereal crops need some water e.g. 700mm • Dairy farms are found in the west because this is a dry part of the country and there is no big demand for rain. Return to Factors Affecting Farming - Physical

  22. Climate & Temperature • Most plants get cold and don’t grow under 6°c. They need to grow mostly in the South East England where it is warmest. Return to Factors Affecting Farming - Physical

  23. Sunshine Hours • Sunshine has a major part in the growing of crops for example grapes need lots of sun and therefore grow well in Mediterranean conditions. Return to Factors Affecting Farming - Physical

  24. Soil Types • Crops grow well in deep fertile soils. Less fertile soils are prone to water logging and are best used for pastoral farming. Return to Factors Affecting Farming - Physical

  25. Relief • Mountainous areas are harder to farm on e.g. arable. Pastoral farming takes place on mountainous areas because there is no need for machinery to be used on the land. • Arable farming takes place on lowland as it is flat. Return to Factors Affecting Farming - Physical

  26. Labour • Work= Labour. • Labour is widely available in LEDC’s because there is a high population and no machinery. Where as MEDC farming requires low labour inputs as machinery is available Return to Factors Affecting Farming - Human

  27. Finance • The profit a farmer makes, depends on the amount of money that can be invested next year. Return to Factors Affecting Farming - Human

  28. Market • If a farmer is to make a profit there must be a market close by, otherwise perishable goods will not last. Pastoral farms do not need to be close to a market. Return to Factors Affecting Farming - Human

  29. Government Policy • In LEDC’s there are loans to buy machinery. • In the EU subsidies or grants are available Return to Factors Affecting Farming - Human

  30. Tradition • Many farmers have been operating for generations, it would be very costly to change from a cereal farm with combine harvesters to a dairy farm with electronic milking parlours Return to Factors Affecting Farming - Human

  31. Subsistence Farming in the Ganges Delta • The Ganges delta is in Bangladesh and some of India. The land Is mainly used for subsistence, sedentary, arable and intensive farming. Return to Main Menu

  32. Farming in the Developing World • Three quarters of the worlds population live in the developing world and are farmers. • Shifting Cultivation is a traditional form of subsistence farming, today it is an extensive form of agriculture and is only found in inaccessible areas. The soil quickly looses its fertility. Return to Main Menu