Criminology. What makes a criminal?. How does free will influence criminal behavior?. Choice Theories. Choice Theories. Classical Criminology: Criminals weigh the benefits vs punishment Decision based on which is heavier Punishments should be heavy enough to deter crime. Choice Theories.
Criminology What makes a criminal?
How does free will influence criminal behavior? Choice Theories
Choice Theories • Classical Criminology: • Criminals weigh the benefits vs punishment • Decision based on which is heavier • Punishments should be heavy enough to deter crime
Choice Theories • Rational Choice Theory: mathematical formula to determine individual decisions • Includes classic criminology theory plus… • Seduction of crime – the rush some people get from criminal activity. Must be factored into RCT
Do some people have a hereditary disposition toward criminal behavior? Biological Theories
Biological and psychological theories • Lombroso • Positivism: Biological + Psychological + Social Forces = CRIMINAL
Biological • Hormones: testosterone • Neurological defects • “Crime Gene?” • Ted Talks - The Brain and The Law
Short Essay Question • How much influence do genetics have over a person’s likelihood to participate in criminal activities? Which is stronger: free will or biological factors?
How do psychological disorders affect criminal behavior? Psychological Theories
Psychological • Substance Abuse: • 50% of criminals under influence • Caused by dopamine • Medical Model of Addiction • Addicts are not criminals • Rehabilitation • Criminal Model of Addiction • Addicts are criminals • Responsible for crimes
Short Answer Question • For addicts who commit crimes, do you think they should be sentenced according to the Medical Model of Addiction or the Criminal Model of Addiction?
Psychological • Psychoanalytical: Freud • Id, ego, superego • Criminals have an imbalance • Post-traumatic stress disorder • Borderline Personality Disorder • Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD): • Psychopath or sociopath • ASPD Signs and Symptoms
Mass Shooting Case Studies Columbine Virginia Tech • Seung-HuiCho – Psychotic (mentally disturbed) • Accused of stalking 2 female students and received counseling • Eric Harris – Psychopath • Dylan Klebold – Depressed • Eric manipulated Dylan into planning the shooting
Does a person’s social background pre-destine them for a criminal lifestyle, leading to a self-perpetuating cycle? Social Theories
Sociological Theories • Chicago School • Studied areas like Chicago and Detroit • Social Disorganization Theory • Strain Theory • Cultural Deviance
Social Disorganization Theory • Definition: crime is largely a product of unfavorable conditions in disorganized communities • high school drop out rate • Unemployment • Deteriorating roads/buildings • Single-parent families • Self – Perpetuating: high crime areas are stuck in a cycle
Strain Theory • American goals of success motivate individual actions • People have unequal means to achieve goals because of social conditions • Some will turn to crime to achieve goals • Determined by psychological factors as well
Cultural Deviance Theory • Subcultures form in disorganized communities • Values differ from larger society • Violence • Crime • Drugs
NB 6 - Scrapbook Reflection • How did using sensory images help you to better understand the perspective of someone growing up in a socially disorganized community?
How does a person’s childhood experiences influence future criminal actions? Social Processes theories
Social Process Theories School of Criminology that believes: • Everyone has the potential for wrongdoing • Social environmental influences determine whether or not someone acts on the potential • Focuses on child development
Learning Theory • Definition: criminals are taught the skills and values necessary to commit crimes. • Family – individuals growing up with a criminal sibling or parent are more likely to commit crimes • TV and Video Games – desensitization to violence can increase aggression in young children
Exit Slip for Library Research Day • Prewriting complete • Material from at least one source printed
Social Processes Theories • Control Theory: • Social bonds discourage criminal behavior • 2 parent household will prevent crime • Labeling Theory: • society creates criminals by labeling them so • Self fulfilling prophesy
Social Conflict Theory • Definition: inequality of social classes in capitalist society leads the underprivileged to lash out against those in power • Economic inequality • Racial inequality
Short Essay Question • What proof or examples of Social Conflict Theory can you think of in American society?
Definition: the study of relationships between the victims and offenders Victimology
Effects of Being a Victim • Adolescents may lose $240,000 over a life time (lost wages, medical costs, etc) • Mental health problems • Substance Abuse • Psychological Disorders • Victims often become offenders
Risks of Victimization • A likely offender + • A suitable target (person or object) + • Absence of guardian + • = Crime • Routine activities often contribute • Example: walking through an empty parking garage at the same time everyday Bait Car
Repeat Victimization • Criminals attach value to targets • The higher the value, the more likely the target will become victim • Examples: • Gold watch is more valuable than plastic watch • Illegal immigrants less likely to report crimes • People who appear weak or unprotected • Certain people are more likely to be victims than others