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The Early Greeks. Chapter 4 Section 1 Pg. 116-123. The Geography of Greece. The mainland Greece is a peninsula meaning a body of land with water on each side To the west is the Ionian Sea To the south is Mediterranean Sea To the east is Aegean. Early Greek. Made their living by the sea

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The Early Greeks

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the early greeks

The Early Greeks

Chapter 4 Section 1

Pg. 116-123

the geography of greece
The Geography of Greece
  • The mainland Greece is a peninsula meaning a body of land with water on each side
  • To the west is the Ionian Sea
  • To the south is Mediterranean Sea
  • To the east is Aegean
early greek
Early Greek
  • Made their living by the sea
  • They became fishers, sailors, and traders.
  • Others made their living by farming
  • Growing wheat, barley, olives and grapes
  • They also raised sheep and goats
  • Minoans were note Greek but their civilization was the first to arise in the region that later became Greece
  • They made their wealth from trade.
  • They built ships from oak and cedar and sailed as far as Egypt and Syria
  • They traded pottery & stone vases for ivory & metal
  • Their ships controlled the eastern Mediterranean Sea
  • About 1450 B.C. Minoan civilization suddenly collapsed.
  • Some believe by undersea earthquakes causing giant waves.
  • Others believe the cities were destroyed by a group of Greeks from the mainland called the Mycenaeans
the first greek kingdoms
The First Greek Kingdoms
  • The Mycenaeans were originally from central Asia
  • The Mycenaean leaders became the first Greek kings
  • They would pay their taxes in wheat, livestock, and honey and stored them in the place.
mycenaeans learned from the minoan
Mycenaeans learned from the Minoan
  • Mycenaeans began trade with the Minoan
  • As a result they learned much from their culture
  • How to work with bronze
  • How to build ships
  • How to navigate by the sun and stars.
  • They began worshiping the Earth Mother, the Minoans’ chief goddess
dark ages
Dark Ages
  • By 1200 B.C the Mycenaeans began to crumble
  • Eathrquakes and fighting among the kingdoms destroyed their hilltop forts.
  • By 1100 B.C their civilization had collapsed.
dark ages1
Dark Ages
  • Between 1100 B.C. and 750 B.C. was difficult for the Greeks.
  • Overseas trade slowed and poverty took hold
  • Farmers grew only enough for their family
  • They stopped teaching others to wrist and do craftwork
  • They forgot the written language and how to do things
the good of the dark ages
The good of the Dark Ages
  • Greek culture began to expand.
  • Thousands of Greeks left the mainland and settled in the islands in the Aegean Sea
  • Others moved to the shores of Asia Minor
  • Dorians lived in the northern mountains of Greece and began to move south during the Dark ages
  • They brought iron weapons giving the Greece more advanced technology
  • Iron weapons and farm tools were stronger and cheaper than those made from bronze
  • Farms began to produce food again and trade revived
  • Because of trade a new way of writing was obtained
  • The Greeks picked up the idea of an alphabet from the Phoenicinas.
  • The Greek alphabet had 24 letters that stood for sounds.
  • Making reading and writing more simpler than ever
city state
  • The nobles created city-states after overthrowing the Greek Kings.
  • Each Greek city-state known as a polis was like a tiny independent country
  • The polis would have a main gathering place usually on the top of a hill called acropolis.
  • Acropolis were used as a safe refuge and as a religious center.
city state continue
City-State continue
  • Below the acropolis would be an open area called agora.
  • This had two functions
    • A market
    • A place where people could meet and debate issues
  • Greeks were the first people to develop the idea off citizenship.
  • Each city-state was run by its citizens
  • These were political community who treat each other as equals and who have rights and responsibilities
  • Most Greek city-states citizens could only be free native-born men who owned land.
  • Some city-states allowed women and children to be citizens but they had no rights.
rights of a citizen
Rights of a Citizen
  • They could gather in the agora
  • Choose their officials
  • Pass laws
  • Right to vote
  • Hold office
  • Own property
  • Defend themselves in court
  • In return they had to serve in government and fight for their polis as citizen soldiers
  • Early Greek wars were fought by nobles riding horses and chariots
  • The development of citizenship changed the military system
  • City-states depend on armies of ordinary citizens called hoplites
  • They would march into battle on foot with a round shield, a short sword, and 9-foot spear.
  • Hoplites made good soldiers because they took pride and fighting for their city-state
  • However this hometown loyalties divided the Greeks and caused them to destroy one another.