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IPv6 Fundamentals Chapter 1: Introduction to IPv6. Rick Graziani Cabrillo College graziani@cabrillo.edu Fall 2013. Technology Today. Imagine a world without the Internet.

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Ipv6 fundamentals chapter 1 introduction to ipv6

IPv6 FundamentalsChapter 1: Introduction to IPv6

Rick Graziani

Cabrillo College


Fall 2013

Technology today
Technology Today

  • Imagine a world without the Internet.

  • No more Google, YouTube, instant messaging, Facebook, Amazon, Wikipedia, online gaming, Netflix, iTunes, and easy access to current information.

Ipv6 fundamentals chapter 1 introduction to ipv6

The network today
The Network Today protocol

  • The Internet of today is much different that it was 30, 15 or 5 years ago.

Technology tomorrow
Technology Tomorrow protocol

  • Now consider what changes will happen within the next 25 years.

  • The Internet of Everything (IoE)... A necessity for IPv6

  • The IoE is bringing together people, process, data, and things to make networked connections more relevant and valuable.

Early years of the internet
Early Years of the Internet protocol

  • RFC 2235 Hobbes’ Internet Timeline

Ipv6 fundamentals chapter 1 introduction to ipv6

  • 1957: The USSR launches Sputnik, the first artificial earth satellite. In response, the United States forms the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) within the Department of Defense (DoD) to establish a U.S. lead in science and technology.

  • 1962: Paul Baran publishes the paper “On Distributed Communications Networks,” a predecessor to the concept of packet-switching networks.

  • 1969: ARPANET is commissioned by the DoD for research into networking. The first node (a mainframe computer) is at the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) Network Measurements Center. The next three nodes consisted of Stanford Research Institute (SRI), the University of California Santa Barbara (UCSB), and the University of Utah. The first router is an Information Message Processor (IMP), a Honeywell 516 mini-computer with 12K of memory developed by Bolt Beranek and Newman, Inc. (BBN).

  • 1969: The first Request for Comments (RFC) is written: “Host Software,” by Steve Crocker.

  • 1971: Fifteen nodes (23 hosts) are on the ARPANET: UCLA, SRI, UCSB, University of Utah, BBN, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), RAND Corporation, System Development Corporation (SDC), Harvard University, MIT’s Lincoln Lab, Stanford University, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Case Western Reserve University, Carnegie-Mellon University, and NASA/Ames Research Center.

Ipv6 fundamentals chapter 1 introduction to ipv6

  • 1971: Ray Tomlinson of BBN invents an email program to send messages across a distributed network.

  • 1973: Bob Metcalfe’s Harvard Ph.D. thesis outlines the idea for Ethernet.

  • 1973: The File Transfer Protocol (FTP) specification is written (RFC 454).

  • 1974: Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn publish the paper “A Protocol for Packet Network Intercommunication,” which specified in detail the design for Transmission Control Protocol (TCP).

  • 1982: ARPA establishes TCP/IP as the protocol suite for the ARPANET. This leads to one of the first definitions of an “Internet” as a connected set of networks that use TCP/IP.

  • 1982: The External Gateway Protocol (RFC 827) specification is written. EGP is used as the routing protocol between networks and is later replaced by Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) in 1994 (RFC 1656).

  • 1983: The Internet transitions from Network Control Protocol (NCP) to TCP/IP on January 1.

  • 1984: The Domain Name System (DNS) is introduced with RFC 920.

  • 1984: The number of hosts on the Internet breaks 1000.

  • 1986: The National Science Foundation Network (NSFNET) initiates operations with a backbone speed of 56 kbps.

  • 1987: The number of hosts on the Internet breaks 10,000.

Ipv6 fundamentals chapter 1 introduction to ipv6

  • 1988: The NSFNET backbone is upgraded to T1 (1.544 Mbps). messages across a distributed network.

  • 1988: Internet Relay Chat (IRC) is developed by JarkkoOikarinen.

  • 1989: The number of hosts on the Internet breaks 100,000.

  • 1989: Cuckoo’s Egg , written by Clifford Stoll, tells the real-life tale of a German cracker group that infiltrated numerous U.S. facilities.

  • 1990: The first remotely operated machine to be hooked up to the Internet, the Internet Toaster, makes its debut at Interop (IT Expo and Conference).

  • 1991: The World Wide Web (WWW) is released by CERN; it was developed by Tim Berners-Lee.

  • 1991: The NSFNET backbone is upgraded to T3 (44.736 Mbps).

  • 1992: The number of hosts on the Internet breaks 1,000,000.

  • 1992: The term “surfing the Internet” is coined by Jean Armour Polly.

  • 1993: The U.S. White House comes online with www.whitehouse.gov . President Bill Clinton: president@whitehouse.gov and Vice President Al Gore: vice-president@ whitehouse.gov .

  • 1994: Shopping on the Internet begins.

  • 1994: Pizza from Pizza Hut can be ordered using the World Wide Web.

Ipv6 fundamentals chapter 1 introduction to ipv6

  • 1995: WWW surpasses FTP as the service with the greatest amount of traffic on the Internet.

  • 1995: Online dialup providers Compuserve, America Online, and Prodigy begin to

  • provide Internet access.

  • 1995: The Vatican comes online.

  • 1996: Internet phones catch the attention of U.S. telecommunication companies, which request the U.S. Congress to ban the technology.

  • 1996: The controversial U.S. Communications Decency Act (CDA) becomes law in the United States to prohibit distribution of indecent materials over the Internet. A few months later, a three-judge panel imposes an injunction against its enforcement. The U.S. Supreme Court unanimously rules most of it unconstitutional in 1997.

  • 1996: MCI upgrades its Internet backbone, bringing the effective speed from 155 Mbps to 622 Mbps.

  • 1996: The WWW browser war, fought primarily between Netscape and Microsoft, rushes in a new age in software development, whereby new releases are made quarterly with the help of Internet users eager to test upcoming (beta) versions.

Ipv6 fundamentals chapter 1 introduction to ipv6

  • 1996: Restrictions are put in place for Internet use around the world (Source: Human Rights Watch):

    • China requires users and Internet service providers (ISP) to register with the police.

    • Germany cuts off access to some newsgroups carried on Compuserve.

    • Saudi Arabia confines Internet access to universities and hospitals.

    • Singapore requires political and religious content providers to register with the state.

    • New Zealand classifies computer disks as “publications” that can be censored and seized.

  • 1997: 101,803 Name Servers are in the “whois” database.

  • 1997: The number of hosts on the Internet breaks 19,000,000.

Early days of the internet
Early Days of the Internet the world (Source: Human Rights Watch):

  • .

The internet
The Internet the world (Source: Human Rights Watch):

Ipv6 fundamentals chapter 1 introduction to ipv6

Ipv6 fundamentals chapter 1 introduction to ipv6

  • .http://sourcedigit.com/1334-world-internet-users-stats-internet-to-grow-larger-in-year-2013/

The internet of things the internet of everything
The Internet of Things, The Internet of Everythinghttp://sourcedigit.com/1334-world-internet-users-stats-internet-to-grow-larger-in-year-2013/

  • The Internet is more than just connecting people.

  • At the very least we need IPv6 for the Internet to continue.

  • So, the “killer application” for the Internet is the Internet itself.

Internet of everything
Internet of Everythinghttp://sourcedigit.com/1334-world-internet-users-stats-internet-to-grow-larger-in-year-2013/

  • A key reason for IPv6.

Ipv6 fundamentals chapter 1 introduction to ipv6

  • In the late 1970s, a family of experimental protocols was developed known as Internet Stream Protocol (ST) and later ST2.

  • Originally defined in Internet Engineering Note IEN-119 (1979)

  • Later revised in RFC 1190 and RFC 1819.

  • ST was an experimental resource reservation protocol intended to provide quality of service (QoS) for real-time multimedia applications such as video and voice.

  • Internet Stream Protocol version 2 (ST-II or ST2) was not designed as a replacement for IPv4.

History of ipv6
History of IPv6http://sourcedigit.com/1334-world-internet-users-stats-internet-to-grow-larger-in-year-2013/

  • IETF began development of a successor to IPv4 in the early 1990s.

  • In 1994, the IETF formed a working group, IP Next Generation, to establish the standards to be used for IPv6:

    • An address architecture and assignment plan

    • Supporting larger packet sizes

    • Tunneling IPv6 packets over IPv4

    • Security and autoconfiguration

  • The size of the Internet routing tables increasing rapidly and the explosion of the number of Internet users generated a consensus that it was time to begin designing and testing a new network layer protocol as the successor to IPv4.

  • Various projections, including a study done by the IETF in the early 1990s, predicted that the Internet would run out of IPv4 address space somewhere between 2005 and 2011.

History of ipv61
History of IPv6http://sourcedigit.com/1334-world-internet-users-stats-internet-to-grow-larger-in-year-2013/

  • The three proposals were as follows:

  • Common Architecture for the Internet (CATNIP): CATNIP proposed integrating IP, Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX), and Connectionless Network Layer Protocol (CLNP).

    • IPX was part of the Internetwork Packet Exchange/Sequenced Packet Exchange (IPX/SPX) suite of protocols used primarily on networks employing the Novell NetWare operating systems.

    • CLNP is an OSI standard defined in ISO 8473 and is the equivalent of IPv4 for the OSI suite of protocols.

    • CATNIP is defined in RFC 1707.

  • Simple Internet Protocol Plus (SIPP): SIPP recommended increasing the IPv4 address size from 32 bits to 64 bits, along with additional improvements to the IPv4 header for more efficient forwarding.

    • SIPP is defined in RFC 1710.

  • TCP/UDP over CLNP-Addressed Networks (TUBA): TUBA requested minimizing the risk associated with migration to a new IP address by replacing IP with CLNP and its address size of 20 bytes (160 bits). TCP, UDP, and the traditional TCP/IP applications would run on top of CLNP.

    • TUBA is defined in RFCs 1347, 1526, and 1561.

Important moments in history
Important moments in history…http://sourcedigit.com/1334-world-internet-users-stats-internet-to-grow-larger-in-year-2013/

  • Monday, January 31, 2011 IANA allocated two blocks of IPv4 address space to APNIC, the RIR for the Asia Pacific region

  • This triggered a global policy to allocate the remaining IANA pool of 5 /8’s equally between the five RIRs.

  • So, basically…

Ipv6 fundamentals chapter 1 introduction to ipv6

Figure 1-8 RIR IPv6 Address Run-Down Modelhttp://sourcedigit.com/1334-world-internet-users-stats-internet-to-grow-larger-in-year-2013/

  • http://www.potaroo.net/tools/ipv4/index.html

History of ipv62
History of IPv6http://sourcedigit.com/1334-world-internet-users-stats-internet-to-grow-larger-in-year-2013/

  • IETF chose SIPP, written by Steve Deering, Paul Francis, and Bob Hinden, but with an address size of 128 bits.

  • The IETF working group IP Next Generation was formed in 1993.

  • In 1995, IETF published RFC 1883, Internet Protocol, Version 6 (IPv6) Specification, which later became obsolete and was replaced by RFC 2460 in 1998.

  • In 2001, the IPng working group was renamed to the IPv6 working group.

  • Regional Internet Registries (RIR) began allocating IPv6 addresses to their customers in 1999.

Benefits of ipv6
Benefits of IPv6http://sourcedigit.com/1334-world-internet-users-stats-internet-to-grow-larger-in-year-2013/

  • Extended address space: IPv6 provides 128-bit source and destination addresses compared to 32-bit addresses with IPv4.

  • This represents an enormous number of addresses: 2 128 , or about 340 trillion trillion trillion addresses, enough for every grain of sand on earth.

Ipv6 fundamentals chapter 1 introduction to ipv6

Benefits of ipv61
Benefits of IPv6http://sourcedigit.com/1334-world-internet-users-stats-internet-to-grow-larger-in-year-2013/

Router Advertisement

(Address, prefix, link MTU)

  • Stateless autoconfiguration: IPv6 provides a configuration mechanism where hosts can self-generate a routable address. IPv4-autoconfigured addresses.

Benefits of ipv62
Benefits of IPv6http://sourcedigit.com/1334-world-internet-users-stats-internet-to-grow-larger-in-year-2013/



Source IP:


Source IP:




Source IP:


Source IP:



Private RFC 1918 Address




  • Eliminates the need for NAT/PAT: Because of the large number of public IPv6 addresses, there is no longer a need for Network Address Translation / Port Address Translation (NAT/PAT)..


Public Address:

NAT Pool (Host Addresses)

Benefits of ipv63
Benefits of IPv6http://sourcedigit.com/1334-world-internet-users-stats-internet-to-grow-larger-in-year-2013/

  • Eliminates broadcasts: IPv6 does not use Layer 3 broadcast addresses.

  • However, IPv6 does employ solicited node multicast addresses, a more efficient and selective technique for processes such as address resolution..

Benefits of ipv64
Benefits of IPv6http://sourcedigit.com/1334-world-internet-users-stats-internet-to-grow-larger-in-year-2013/

Tunneling – IPv6 packets encapsulated inside IPv4 packets.

NAT64 – Translating between IPv4 and IPv6.

  • Transition tools: IPv6 has a variety of tools to help with the transition from IPv4 to IPv6, including tunneling and NAT.

Native IPv6 – All IPv6 (our focus and the goal of every organization).

When do i have to go to ipv6
When do I have to go to IPv6?http://sourcedigit.com/1334-world-internet-users-stats-internet-to-grow-larger-in-year-2013/

  • IPv4 and IPv6 will coexist for the foreseeable future.

  • Dual-stack – Device running both IPv4 and IPv6.



No more nat as we know it
No more NAT as we know ithttp://sourcedigit.com/1334-world-internet-users-stats-internet-to-grow-larger-in-year-2013/

RFC 1918 Private Address

Public IPv4 Address

  • IETF does not support the concept of translating a “private IPv6” address to a “public” IPv6 address.

  • NAT for IPv4 breaks many things.


  • How we use the Internet today is much different than it was when IPv4 was developed, with more users, more devices, and new demands. We have moved from just an Internet of computers to an Internet of things/everything .

  • Although no one knows exactly when, we will eventually run out of IPv4’s 4.3 billion addresses, but the fact is that the Internet is in the final stages of public IPv4 address availability.

  • IPv6, with its 128-bit address scheme, provides more than enough globally unique addresses to support the growth of the Internet.

  • IPv4 and IPv6 will coexist for the foreseeable future. IPv6 includes tools and migration strategies that allow both protocols to coexist.

  • The combination of CIDR, NAT, and private addressing has helped slow the depletion of IPv4 address space. However, NAT complicates many applications, including peer-to-peer networking, and with an emerging global Internet community, these enhancements to IPv4 are no longer sufficient.

  • In addition to a larger address space, IPv6 offers additional enhancements such as stateless autoconfiguration and expanded address space without NAT.

  • Now is the best time for IT departments to begin familiarizing themselves with IPv6 before an ordered mandate. The Internet is the killer-application for IPv6.

Ipv6 fundamentals chapter 1 introduction to ipv61

IPv6 Fundamentalshttp://sourcedigit.com/1334-world-internet-users-stats-internet-to-grow-larger-in-year-2013/Chapter 1: Introduction to IPv6

Rick Graziani

Cabrillo College


Fall 2013