Community Media in Europe. Marko Ala-Fossi University of Tampere Community Media and New Technology - where next? June 8, 2009 Lusaka, Zambia. Community Media in Europe. Community media was introduced in Europe in the late 1960s and 1970s and it grew rapidly during 1980s and 1990s
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University of Tampere
Community Media and New Technology - where next?
June 8, 2009
First official study about community media in EU was commissioned by the European Parliament's Committee on Culture and Education in 2007
The goal was to get a picture of the place occupied by Community Media in the overall media landscape in the EU
What Community Media – and why should we care?Community Media in Europe
CM Activity commissioned by the European Parliament's Committee on Culture and Education in 2007
Orange: very active, well established regulations
Light Orange: very active, recently changed regulation
Yellow: very active and public awareness, legal recognition but no funding
Green: comparably active, lack of legislative recognition and regulations
Blue: only limited activity
Grey: no data availableThe State of Community Media in the European Union (2007)
In 2008, a new report was commissioned by the Council of Europe (MC-S-MD) to:
study the relationship between media and social cohesion
summarize the definitions of third sector media and classify its different forms
discuss the positive and negative effects of third sector media with regard to social cohesion
describe the existing measures to support third sector mediaCommunity Media in Europe
The report on community media was prepared by an Austrian MEP, Karin Resetarits.
The report was adopted by the Committee on Culture and Education in June 2008 and by the European Parliament in September 2008EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT RESOLUTION on Community Media in Europe (2008/2011(INI))
The European Parliament …
1. Stresses that community media are an effective means of strengthening cultural and linguistic diversity, social inclusion and local identity, which explains the diversity of the sector;…
7. Stresses that community media help to strengthen media pluralism, as they provide additional perspectives on issues that lie at the heart of a given community;…
15. Advises Member States, without causing detriment to traditional media, to give legal recognition to community media as a distinct group alongside commercial and public media where such recognition is still lacking;…
17. Calls on Member States to support community media more actively in order to ensure media pluralism, provided that such support is not to the detriment of public media;…
23. Instructs its President to forward this resolution to the Council, the Commission, the European Economic and Social Committee, and the Committee of the Regions, and to the governments and parliaments of the Member States.
Community radio licensing was introduced by Ofcom and the first licence was awarded in March 2005.
Over 130 community stations are now broadcasting across the UK, with another 50 preparing to launch. (201 licenses granted by 05/2009)
More than 8 million people in the UK are already able to tune into community radio stations
These not-for-profit radio stations cover small geographical areas and each typically provides 81 hours of original and distinctive output a week – mostly locally produced.
http://www.ofcom.org.uk/radio/ifi/rbl/commun_radio/cr_annualrpt/Community Radio in the UK has been a success story since 2005
The Austrian Parliament has recently passed a legislation recognizing Community Media that includes a legal definition of non-commercial Radio and Television as specific form of broadcast media.
The new law also includes a "fund for noncommercial broadcasters (Radio, TV)", 1 Million Euro per year, administered by the Austrian Media Regulator RTR and financed partly from broadcasting fees.Community Media has now legal recognition in Austria
The amount and financial output of private radio stations in Finland 1985-2005
Total number of private stations
Stations going out of business
Special radio licensees
Profits of Radio Nova
Profits of other private stations
Profits in total
Nationwide PSB Radio:YLE
YLE Radio 1 - culture, art and factual talk + classical music
YLEX - pop culture, new pop and rock & special music programs
YLE Radio Suomi - national and regional news, sports and music
20 regional units
YLE Puhe – speech journalism (almost nationwide, former YLE Radio Peili)
YLE Radio Extrem - news, sport & new pop and rock (Swedish)
YLE Radio Vega - news, current affairs, culture & music (Swedish)
YLE Sámi Radio in Lapland (Sámi)
Nationwide Commercial Radio (since 1997)
Radio Nova - AC / Hot AC (Adult Contemporary)
Semi-national commercial networks
(and local commercial radio)
9 semi-national FM licenses, but 10 networks :
Groove FM, Radio SuomiPop, (Communicorp)
Radio Aalto, Radio Rock (Swelcom),
NRJ Energy (NRJ)
The Voice, Iskelmä (SBS)
[Iskelmä network is actually operating on 17 local radio licenses!]
Finnish radio landscape 2007-2011 FM Radio- Layer 3
Local non-profit and community radio
Radio Robin Hood (Turku)
Radio Moreeni (Tampere)
Radio Iniö (Iniö)
Radio Pro (Tornio)
Radio Inari (Ivalo)
- Private funding (associations, religious groups, air time sales, also advertising allowed)
- Semi-public funding (university, municipality)
[ - > Finnish Community Radio Association was established 12/2007]
Community TV in Finland was started 1972 in a local cable TV network in Uusikaarlepyy.
The Finland-Swedish Local TV Association was founded in 1993
Today there are 24 community TV stations in the Swedish-speaking parts of Finland.
Most community TV stations operate on cable networks: smallest one provides programming for 60 households and largest one for 14.000 households.
KRS-TV in Kristiinankaupunki and När-TV in Närpiö have also broadcast licenses in DVB-T network
There are also some Finnish-speaking Community TV projects, which are mainly internet-based (M2HZ, BassoTV) + some regional TV stations (eg.Turku TV)Community TV in Finland