adolescence hiv aiming for a successful transition to adult services n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Adolescence & HIV – aiming for a successful transition to adult services PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Adolescence & HIV – aiming for a successful transition to adult services

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 24

Adolescence & HIV – aiming for a successful transition to adult services - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 108 Views
  • Uploaded on

Adolescence & HIV – aiming for a successful transition to adult services. Dr Conor Doherty RHSC Glasgow. Clinician parent child Parent Clinician Older child Clinician Adolescent. Talking to adolescents. Confidentiality, honesty, clarity Listen, engage, respect

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Adolescence & HIV – aiming for a successful transition to adult services' - stone-matthews


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
adolescence hiv aiming for a successful transition to adult services

Adolescence & HIV – aiming for a successful transition to adult services

Dr Conor DohertyRHSC Glasgow

talking to adolescents
Clinician parent child

Parent

Clinician

Older child

Clinician Adolescent

Talking to adolescents

Confidentiality, honesty, clarity

Listen, engage, respect

Non judgemental

Encourage to ask questions

Don’t overload, patronise and don’t assume poor understanding

the agenda
Clinician - the optimal regimen - minimise s.e.’s & maximise adherence

Adolescent - family dynamics - sex, drugs & alcohol - risk taking behaviour - peer group conformity

What does my diagnosis mean to me? - isolation

- race, ethnicity - language - migration - parental illness / bereavement - transition to ‘adult care’ - education & future plans

‘The agenda’
the transition a guided educational therapeutic process
The transition – ‘a guided educational & therapeutic process’
  • Epidemiology – identifying the clinical issues
  • Cases – challenges, successes, failures
  • Service provision and guidanceCHIVA www.chiva.org.ukCHIPS www.chipscohort.ac.ukHYPNET www.hypnet.org.uk
slide5

↑ no of adolescents

↑ age of perinatally infected cohort

↑ duration of drug exposure

↑ survival

↓ vertical transmission

↓threshold for HAART

epidemiology
(HYPNET/CHIVA)

2228 young people (16-24) accessing HIV care in UK (2007)

- 48% heterosexual – mainly black African - 48% MSM (x2 since 1998)

654 perinatally infected> 10 y old (up to 2007) - 93% of those diagnosed with HIV <16y old are in CHIPs cohort

Globally

- 40% of 2.8 million new infections in 2008 in the 16-24 y old age grp(UNAIDS)

HIV prevalence in 10 y in S Africa to increase from 2.1% to 3.3% by 2020(Ferrand 2009)

- 38% of children requiring HAART had access to treatment in 2008(UNAIDS)

Epidemiology
in clinic the issues
In clinic - the issues
  • Communication / education / empowerment
  • Medication - adherence within a teenage lifestyle - simplification of regimens - long term health & minimising complications due to HAART
  • Identifying the stresses
  • Alcohol, drugs and sex
  • future plans and transition of care
newly presenting adolescent judd et al hiv medicine 2009
Newly presenting adolescentJudd et al: HIV medicine 2009
  • 42 presented >13 y old (median 14 y (13-20y))
  • 95% Black African and 86% born in Africa
  • 50% symptomatic (29% AIDS at diagnosis) & 47% as a result of screening
  • Median CD4 210/μl(0-689)
case 1 age 17y
14 y old – newly arrived from sub-Saharan Africa

Presented to adolescent services for screening

Mother reluctant to screen and reluctant to disclose result

Disclosure 5 months after presentation and just prior to starting HAART – relationship with mother deteriorated

CD count 235 – declined treatment

Regimen commenced 1 year after diagnosis

Totally virally suppressed for 1 year/CD4 590

The stresses - relationship with mum & honesty around diagnosis

- ? Imminent forced repatriation & all the other teenager stresses

Current situation - refusal to attend clinic - taking HAART - ad hoc clinical care - refusing peer support - monosyllabic and angry

?? How to plan transition

Case 1 : age 17y
gillick competency fraser guidelines
Gillick competency/Fraser guidelines
  • ‘parental right to determine whether their…child below the age of 16 will have medical treatment terminates if and when the child achieves a sufficient understanding and intelligence to enable him or her to understand fully what is proposed’Lord Scarman – House of Lords judementGillick v West Norfolk and Wisbech Area Health Authority (1985)

Is child competent to make own decisions & understand the implications of those decisions?

case 2 12 y old
Case 2: 12 y old
  • Diagnosed aged 5/12 with PCP
  • Mother : 22y, single, little family support, just started HAART herself, alcohol and mental health concerns, poor clinic attendance, poor parenting skills
treatment changes
Treatment changes

Viral Load

CD4

peer support
Peer support
  • NCB guidancehttp://www.ncb.org.uk/pdf/HIV%20Handbook%20lo%20res.pdf
  • http://www.chiva.org.uk/youth
  • http://waverleycare.org
teenagers and risk taking
Teenagers and risk taking!!
  • >25% of teenagers are sexually active before 16y old
  • The younger the adolescent the less likely to use a condom
  • UK – highest rate of teenage pregnancy in Western Europe
  • 50% of all STI’s occur in the 16-24 y old
  • 4% of 11 year olds said they had used drugs in the last year, compared with 29% of 15 year olds in 2008 (www.ic.nhs.uk)
  • Drinking increases with age: 14% of 12–13s, 33% of 14–15s and 62% of 16–17s have drunk alcohol in the last week (ias.org.uk)
treatment guidance penta 2009
Treatment guidance : PENTA 2009

Clinical CDC stage B or C

WHO stage 3 or 4

CD4 <350 cells / μl

Virological >100,000 copies / ml

Response to treatment (both naive & experienced) poorer than in young children or adults (COHERE 2008)

case 3 drug exposure 17 y old
Case 3 : drug exposure17 y old
  • presented aged 10y with suppurative lymphadenitis
  • Mother dead - father, step mother & step siblings HIV-ve
long term morbidity
Long term morbidity
  • Neurocognitive - Children (3-7y) with CDC Class C↓ neurocognitive development (Smilth 2006) - Adolescents with CDC Class C ↑ prev of neurocognitive & psychiatric morbidity(Wood 2009) - School age children - normal IQ but ↓ executive functioning and processing speed (Koekkoek 2008)* caveat – complex aetiology of neurocognitive dysfunction and adequate control of cofounders? functional translation of neurocognitive deficits
  • Psychiatric↑ prev of morbidity in HIV positive adolescents (Mellins 2009)
long term morbidity1
Long term morbidity
  • Cardiovascular

- interplay of host, viral and ART factor often not evident in adolescence.

- hypercholesterolaemia, hypertriglyceridaemia & insulin resistance (Hazra 2010)

- lipoatrophy/dystrophy & body image

- ↑ arterial wall stiffness (carotid PWV) (Charakida 2009)

- DAD/SMART studies in adults linking recent ABC to MI’s

  • Renal

- pre HAART 10-15% of African American children had HIVAN

- 22% of children had persistent laboratory renal abnm assoc with Black ethnicity, older age, tenofovir (Andiman 2009)

- CHIPS cohort : Hypophosphataemia uncommon (4%), prolonged TDF use,

generally reversible with TDF withdrawal (Judd 2010)

uk experience the chips data foster at al aids patient care stds 2009
UK experience - the CHIPS data(Foster at al: AIDS patient care & STDs 2009)
  • 654 perinatally infected> 10 y old (up to 2007)
  • 79% Black African (57% born abroad)
  • Median age/duration UK/Eire 1 / 11y Abroad 8 / 5y
  • 25% AIDS defining illness
  • 10 deaths during adolescence

Treatment – at last follow-up

  • 64% on ART (78% <400 copies / median CD4 554)
  • 18% off (previously received ART)
  • 18% ART naïve
  • 47% triple class experienced
  • 166 with resistance genotypes: 52 / 12 % had dual/triple class mutations
  • 12% severely immunocompromised (CD4 < 200)
  • 103 (16%) transferred to adult services at median age of 17y? toxicity data? growth/puberty/fertility/neurological/neurocognitive outcomes
national networking chiva hypnet
National Networking CHIVA / HYPNET
  • http://www.chiva.org.uk/health/guidelines/standards#Standards
  • MDT should include support from: paediatricians; specialist nurses, pharmacists, psychologists, physiotherapists, social workers, and dieticians
  • Evidence based practice
  • Planned transition & individualized plans
  • Health education and promotion inc negotiating relationships, safe sex education and vaccination
  • Comprehensive paediatric summary
  • The views of adolescents and young adults should be represented in policy and ongoing service developments
  • http://www.chiva.org.uk/publications/2007/transition.pdf
  • http://www.chiva.org.uk/health/guidelines/independence HYPNET HYPNet CHIVA guidance on the management of sexual and reproductive health for adolescents living with HIV 2010
glasgow adolescent clinic
Glasgow Adolescent clinic
  • Based at RHSC
  • After school
  • From age 11 onwards (after disclosure)
  • Review without parent
  • Review with adult consultant (GUM)
  • Separate consultation with sexual health advisor

Encourage adolescent to take responsibility to understand & enable reasoned decisions to successfully transition to adult care

conclusions
Conclusions
  • ‘transition’ - planned, purposeful and patient – centred - medical, psychological
  • Adolescents have specific service requirements & need dedicated service models
  • Long term morbidity of HIV/HAART
  • Current lack of well controlled research studies