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  1. 1. The nullification confrontation of 1832-1833 between President Andrew Jackson and South Carolina Senator John C. Calhoun concerned A. Jackson's attempts to abolish slavery in the South. B. Calhoun's claim that a state has the power to ignore federal laws. C. the constitutionality of the second Bank of the United States. D. whether slavery would be allowed in western territories. 2. Most anti-Federalists changed from opponents to supporters of the Constitution after they were promised A. a bill of rights B. term limits on the office of president C. good relations with Native Americans D. a bicameral legislature B. Calhoun's claim that a state has the power to ignore federal laws. A. a bill of rights

  2. 3. When the U.S. government needed 10,000 rifles for the army, Eli Whitney applied for the contract. He took several guns, dismantled them, put the pieces in a box, and shook it. He then randomly selected the pieces he needed, assembled one rifle, and fired it. What did he demonstrate? A. interchangeable parts C. assembly line production B. mass production techniques D. the factory system 4. Attempts to escape religious persecution were key factors in the original settlement of which American colonies? A. South Carolina and Georgia C. Virginia and New York B. Pennsylvania and Maryland D. North Carolina and New Jersey A. interchangeable parts B. Pennsylvania and Maryland

  3. Use this excerpt to answer the question. "The great rule of conduct for us in regard to foreign nations is, in extending our commercial relations, to have with them as little political connection as possible. So far we have already formed engagements and let them be fulfilled with perfect good faith. Here let us stop."5. In his Farewell Address, President George Washington warned future Americans about the problems that could result from A. immigration quotas for foreign nations B. passing high protective tariffs to control foreign imports C. becoming allied with foreign powers D. expanding westward into lands claimed by others C. becoming allied with foreign powers

  4. 6. Which of the following actions would have been supported by Northern manufacturers and opposed by Southern planters? A. allowing slavery to expand into Missouri B. imposing a tariff upon finished goods C. making improvements to the port of New Orleans D. making improvements to the cotton gin7. Military rivalries among European nations in the 1600s caused many of them to support settlements in the New World in order to A. find more soldiers. B. obtain more wealth. C. escape attacks at home. D. gain favor with their allies B. imposing a tariff upon finished goods B. obtain more wealth.

  5. 8. What was one effect of the Wagner Act (1935)? A. The number of factory workers declined dramatically between 1935 and 1945. B. Employers were prohibited from interfering in workers' efforts to unionize. C. Laborers shifted their support from the Democratic Party to the Republican Party. D. Laborers in companies with more than 50 employees were prohibited from striking. 9. Which of the following Constitutional amendments MOST directly addresses the issue of limiting the authority of the federal government? A. Amendment 7—Trial by Jury in Civil Cases B. Amendment 10—Powers of the States and People C. Amendment 14—Civil Rights D. Amendment 21—Repeal of Prohibition B. Employers were prohibited from interfering in workers' efforts to unionize. B. Amendment 10—Powers of the States and People

  6. 10. Because of the passage of the Stamp Act in 1765, many colonists began to believe that A. they should only abide by laws enacted by their own representatives. B. they should appeal to the French for help against the British government. C. Native Americans should follow the same laws as the colonists. D. the British government was attempting to improve government services.11. What was the Harlem Renaissance of the 1920s? A. a program of urban renewal among various ethnic groups begun in New York City. B. a period of musical, artistic, and literary productivity among African Americans in New York City. C. the integration of African Americans into colleges and universities throughout the nation. D. a set of political reforms and social programs supported by African American politicians in New York City. A. they should only abide by laws enacted by their own representatives. ***

  7. 12. The Confederate defeat at Vicksburg was important because it A. ended the last major Confederate invasion of the North. B. resulted in the Confederacy being split in half along the Mississippi River. C. caused Jefferson Davis to resign as president of the Confederacy. D. forced Robert E. Lee to leave Virginia and take command in the West. 13. Which of the following BEST explains how railroads stimulated the national economy in the late 1800s?A. They increased the number of railroad barons. B. They allowed a large number of people to enter the United States. C. They efficiently allowed products to be shipped across the country. D. They diminished the power of monopolies in the railroad industry. B. resulted in the Confederacy being split in half along the Mississippi River. C. They efficiently allowed products to be shipped across the country.

  8. 14. The goal of U.S. government-mandated rationing during World War II was to A. promote more international trade B. prevent profiteering by defense industries C. expand job opportunities for the unemployed D. conserve raw materials needed by the military. 15. What was the main mission of the United Nations, formed at the end of World War II in 1945? A. to ensure that Germany would never threaten its neighbors again. B. to enforce payment of war reparations by Germany and Japan. C. to promote peace and cooperation among all the countries of the world. D. to keep the world safe by outlawing the development of nuclear weapons. D. conserve raw materials needed by the military.**** C. to promote peace and cooperation among all the countries of the world.***

  9. 16. Use the quote below to answer the question.You have secured to us the free navigation of the Mississippi. You have procured an immense and fertile country: and all these great blessings are obtained without bloodshed."This quotation refers to A. the Louisiana Purchase. B. gains from the Black Hawk War. C. the loss of British forts in the West. D. the annexation of Texas. 17. One major compromise at the Constitutional Convention settled the difference between large states and small states over the issue of A. representation in Congress. B. taxation. C. territorial expansion. D. civil liberties. A. the Louisiana Purchase. A. representation in Congress.

  10. 18. Use the information below to answer the following question."SEC. 3. The President in every possible instance shall consult with Congress before introducing United States Armed Forces into hostilities or into situations where imminent involvement in hostilities is clearly indicated by the circumstances. . . ." —War Powers ResolutionNovember 7, 1973This action was partly a result of A. increasing tensions with Communist China. B. the threat of attack by the Soviet Union. C. American activities in Vietnam.D. Growing isolationist sentiment.19. Who traveled the "Middle Passage"? A. slaves going from Africa to the Caribbean B. traders carrying molasses to the Caribbean C. ship captains bringing rum to West Africa D. missionaries going to Africa from England C. American activities in Vietnam. A. slaves going from Africa to the Caribbean

  11. 20. The United States gained control of the land it needed to build the Panama Canal by A. negotiating an agreement with Colombia. B. invading Colombia and taking the land. C. implementing the Open Door policy. D. encouraging and supporting Panamanian independence. 21. Which of the following had the MOST influence on the structure of American cities after the Civil War? A. the building of the canal system B. the use of the telegraph C. the development of mass transportation D. the invention of the suspension bridge D. encouraging and supporting Panamanian independence C. the development of mass transportation

  12. A. state governments 22. The Anti-Federalists were MOST concerned about retaining and protecting the power of the A. state governments C. federal government B. Articles of Confederation D. U.S. Constitution Read the excerpt from Abraham Lincoln's second inaugural address. "With malice toward none; with charity for all; with firmness in the right, as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in; to bind up the nation's wounds . . . to do all which may achieve and cherish a just and lasting peace among ourselves, and with all nations." —March 4, 1865 23. This selection expresses Lincoln's hope for restoration of A. civil liberties C. national unity B. racial equality D. religious freedom C. national unity

  13. 24. Which of the following was a belief held by John Brown (1800–1859)? A. Individual states should decide whether to permit slavery. B. Abolitionists should work for gradual change. C. The South should work to diversify its economic base. D. Slavery should be abolished by violent means, if necessary. 25. The Pilgrims moved first to Holland and then to Massachusetts so that they could A. practice religion as they pleased B. educate Native Americans C. abolish the Church of England D. live in social and economic isolation D. Slavery should be abolished by violent means, if necessary. A. practice religion as they pleased

  14. 26. The nullification confrontation of 1832-1833 between President Andrew Jackson and South Carolina Senator John C. Calhoun concerned A. Jackson's attempts to abolish slavery in the South. B. Calhoun's claim that a state has the power to ignore federal laws. C. the constitutionality of the second Bank of the United States. D. whether slavery would be allowed in western territories. 27. By 1863, MOST military planners knew that the South could not continue to fight indefinitely because A. increasing numbers of Southern citizens no longer supported the Confederate cause. B. the Southern industrial base was too weak to support the expense of waging war. C. large numbers of former slaves were joining the union army. D. the Southern leadership was too inexperienced to fight against northern armies and navies. ******* ******

  15. 28. Which of these MOST accurately describes a result of Lyndon Johnson's "Great Society" programs? A. Federal anti-poverty programs were enacted for the first time in history. B. Less tax money was spent on social programs. C. Federal spending was increased for education, housing, and health care. D. The federal government gave up many state and local government functions.29. The successful launch of the Sputnik satellite by the Soviet Union in 1957 led to A. the creation of an effective space-based missile defense system. B. the discovery of the effects of low gravity on nuclear weapons. C. a major effort by the United States to improve math and science education. D. the defeat of Richard M. Nixon by John F. Kennedy in the 1960 presidential election. ****** *******

  16. 30. Why were business owners in the late 1800s and early 1900s able to convince many people that labor-organizing efforts were "un-American"? A. A large proportion of the industrial workers in the United States were foreign-born. B. Wages in the United States were generally higher than they were in Europe. C. Labor-organizing efforts were strongest outside the South. D. Labor organizers generally supported United States intervention in foreign wars. 31. Treating people unfairly because of their sex, race, or religion is called A. disability. C. discrimination. B. representation. D. equal rights. A. A large proportion of the industrial workers in the United States were foreign-born. C. discrimination.

  17. 32. During the 1990s, the economies of Canada, Mexico, and the United States became more integrated when all three nations agreed to A. lower trade barriers C. create a common currency B. pool their tax revenues D. standardize wages and prices33. The development of suburban areas in the United States during the 1950s can be attributed mostly to A. decreasing cost of building materials B. increasing supply of skilled labor C. decreasing development of rural areas D. increasing development of the national highway system A. lower trade barriers D. increasing development of the national highway system

  18. 34. What are the two main political parties in the United States? A. Independents and Federalists B. Democrats and Republicans C. Conservatives and Liberals D. Socialists and Populists 35. Which of the following would give the most complete information about candidates and issues in elections? A. Campaign posters B. Television commercials C. Newspaper articles about candidates D. Newspaper advertisements for candidates B. Democrats and Republicans C. Newspaper articles about candidates

  19. 36. Nations sometimes try to take what they need, even if it belongs to another country. Sometimes they do this by starting a war. What is a better way for a country to get what it needs? A. Pretend it does not want it so the other country will sell it at a low price. B. Make a treaty or an agreement with the other country for what it needs. C. Ask the United Nations to force the other country to give it what it needs. D. Ask the Supreme Court to decide what the other country should do.37. Peace treaties are usually signed by A. cities. C. townships. B. states. D. countries. B. Make a treaty or an agreement with the other country for what it needs. D. countries.

  20. The following question refers to the school dress rules below.The United States Supreme Court has not decided whether public schools can make their students wear uniforms. State courts, however, have usually defended the idea of dress codes. 38. Why would a court need to decide whether public schools can have dress codes? A. To find out if wearing uniforms improves student learning. B. To see that the rules are being followed by all students. C. To decide whether school dress codes are constitutional. D. To make sure uniforms do not cost more than regular clothes. C. To decide whether school dress codes are constitutional.

  21. 39. Who decides whether a law follows the Constitution or not? A. The secretary of state C. The governor of a state B. The Supreme Court D. Individual citizens  40. Which of the following leaders is elected to office? A. A school principal C. A chief of police B. A general in the army D. The President 41. A fourth-grade class was given the opportunity to prepare its own lunch. Which would be the most democratic way for the class to decide on the menu for lunch? A. The teacher could decide which foods to serve. B. The students could make a list of their favorite foods and vote on what to serve. C. The students with the best grades could choose which foods to serve. D. The teacher could make a list of his or her favorite foods and let the class vote on what to serve. B. The Supreme Court D. The President *****

  22. 42. Which of the following is true about laws in the United States? A. Laws must be applied to everyone equally. B. Judges can make laws. C. Large states make more laws than small states. D. It takes two years for a law to go into effect. 43. What is the President's role in making laws? A. The President can rewrite some parts of the Constitution. B. The President can declare laws unconstitutional. C. The President can sign congressional bills into law. D. The President can remove members of Congress from office. A. Laws must be applied to everyone equally. C. The President can sign congressional bills into law.

  23. 44. A student notices that the playing fields at her school have become littered with trash. How could she best show her civic responsibility? A. Complain to her friends that no one at the school cares about the way it looks. B. Ignore the mess and take her friends to play in an area that is still clean. C. Organize local scout troops to clean up the playing fields. D. Call the police to report that the school's fields are dirty. 45. Which of the following is the most important reason why the United States trades with other countries? A. People get a chance to travel. B. It helps people get the things they need. C. It helps us learn about other cultures. D. We can learn other languages. C. Organize local scout troops to clean up the playing fields. C. It helps us learn about other cultures.

  24. 45. The Constitution requires that the President's nominations to the Supreme Court be approved by the Senate. This is an example of A. legislative supremacy C. checks and balances B. federalism D. judicial review 46. Sometimes the common good conflicts with individual rights. Which of the following is an example of this? A. A person is put in jail because she is guilty of a violent crime. B. A person must move out of his house so that a highway can be built. C. Schools are closed because of icy roads. D. A community organizes to clean up a vacant lot. C. checks and balances B. A person must move out of his house so that a highway can be built.

  25. I would be the first to advocate obeying just laws. One has not only a legal but a moral responsibility to obey just laws. Conversely, one has a moral responsibility to disobey unjust laws. . . .   — Martin Luther King, Jr., "Letter from Birmingham Jail," 1963 47. What response to an unjust law is most consistent with the ideas of Martin Luther King, Jr.? A. Leaving the country rather than obeying the law B. Engaging the police in open battle C. Urging people to carry guns to protect themselves D. Taking part in peaceful demonstrations and boycotts D. Taking part in peaceful demonstrations and boycotts

  26. A house divided against itself cannot stand. I believe this government cannot endure permanently half slave and half free. I do not expect the Union to be dissolved — I do not expect the house to fall — but I do expect it will cease to be divided.                                                                  — Abraham Lincoln, 1858 48. What did Abraham Lincoln mean in this speech? A. The South should be allowed to separate from the United States. B. The government should support slavery in the South. C. Sometime in the future slavery would disappear from the United States. D. Americans would not be willing to fight a war over slavery. C. Sometime in the future slavery would disappear from the United States.

  27. The following question refers to the passage below. We hold these truths to be self-evident: That all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness . . . 49. According to this document, "life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness" are A. God-given rights that governments cannot take away B. rights given to citizens and not to noncitizens C. rights that are made into laws by governments D. the rights to a place to live and a place to work A. God-given rights that governments cannot take away

  28. 50. What is the main reason the Pilgrims and Puritans came to America? A. To practice their religion freely B. To make more money and live a better life C. To build a democratic government D. To expand the lands controlled by the king of England 51. Which war did the United States enter to prevent the spread of communism? A. The Mexican-American War B. The First World War C. The Second World War D. The Vietnam War A. To practice their religion freely D. The Vietnam War

  29. 52. What impact did the Anti-Federalists have on the United States Constitution? A. Their arguments helped lead to the adoption of the Bill of Rights. B. Their arguments helped lead to the abolition of the slave trade. C. Their influence ensured that the federal government would maintain a standing army. D. Their influence ensured that the federal government would have the power to tax. A. Their arguments helped lead to the adoption of the Bill of Rights.

  30. 53. What was a major effect of the introduction of the cotton gin? A. A decline in the southern slave population B. A decline in the size of southern farms C. An increase in cotton production D. An increase in the import of manufactured goods 54. The Great Society programs of the 1960's were primarily based on the idea that A. American society was hopelessly flawed. B. the federal government should play an active role in promoting social welfare. C. the poor needed to work harder in order to succeed. D. the federal government lacked the authority to help the poor. C. An increase in cotton production B. the federal government should play an active role in promoting social welfare.

  31. 55. One major consequence of the Seven Years' War (French and Indian War) was that the A. colonists' decision to side with France led Britain to retaliate against them. B. expense of fighting the war led Britain to tax the colonies directly for the first time. C. loyalty of the colonists to the British side led Britain to grant them a high degree of self-government. D. elimination of the French threat in North America led Britain to concentrate on conquering all of the remaining Spanish colonies. B. expense of fighting the war led Britain to tax the colonies directly for the first time.

  32. 56. Many people opposed ratification of the Constitution without a bill of rights because they A. were afraid the states would be too powerful without a bill of rights. B. thought that a bill of rights would strengthen the President's power. C. did not want the national government to have an army. D. feared that the new national government would deny people their rights. D. feared that the new national government would deny people their rights.

  33. 57.  The phrase "Jim Crow" refers to laws that A. made liquor illegal. C. enforced racial segregation. B. restricted immigration D. protected the environment. to the United States. Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka Montgomery Bus Boycott March on Washington "I Have a Dream" Speech Voting Rights Act 58.  The events listed would be most important in a discussion of which movement? A. Civil rights C. Anti-Vietnam War B. Immigration reform D. Women's liberation C. enforced racial segregation A. Civil rights

  34. "The 'control of nature' is a phrase conceived in arrogance, born of the Neanderthal age of biology and philosophy, when it was supposed that nature exists for the convenience of man. It is our alarming misfortune that so primitive a science has armed itself with the most modern and terrible weapons, and that in turning them against the insects it has also turned them against the earth." -Rachel Carson, Silent Spring, 1962 59. The book quoted above was important in helping to begin the A. environmental movement C. anti-nuclear arms movement B. anti-Vietnam War movement D. America First movement A. environmental movement

  35. The following question refers to the passage below. We hold these truths to be self-evident: That all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. That, to secure these rights, governments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, that, whenever any form of government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the right of the people to alter or to abolish it, and to institute a new government. — 1776 60. The primary author of the document was A. George Washington C. John Marshall B. Robert E. Lee D. Thomas Jefferson D. Thomas Jefferson

  36. 61. What was the main effect of Eli Whitney's cotton gin? A. It reduced global demand for cotton and led United States farmers to grow other crops. B. It made it possible to produce clothing by machine and led to the building of textile factories throughout the southern United States. C. It allowed people to grow cotton on land that had previously been considered too dry and led to large-scale irrigation projects in the western United States. D. It allowed cotton to be processed more quickly and profitably and led to the expansion of slavery in the southern United States. • It allowed cotton to be processed more quickly and profitably and led to the • expansion of slavery in the southern United States.

  37. 62. The Great Awakening of the 1730's was important because it led people in the American colonies to A. increase toleration for Roman Catholics. B. examine the different positions of men and women in society. C. reaffirm that God gave kings their right to rule. D. question the authority of church and government leaders63. What was one consequence of Nat Turner's rebellion? A. Large numbers of slaves fled to the North. B. Slave revolts broke out throughout the South. C. Conditions for slaves on many southern plantations improved. D. Southern states passed laws designed to tightly control slaves. D. question the authority of church and government leaders D. Southern states passed laws designed to tightly control slaves.

  38. 64. The Monroe Doctrine was intended to A. promote United States trade with China. B. help keep the peace in Europe. C. discourage European involvement in the Americas. D. protect United States business in Japan and Korea. 65. Between 1960 and 1990, what invention most changed the way people in the United States worked? A. The typewriter C. The computer B. The superconductor D. The radio C. discourage European involvement in the Americas. C. The computer

  39. The following question refers to the poster below, which is from the Second World War. 66. The freedom that is the subject of the poster is protected by the A. Articles of Confederation C. Declaration of Independence B. Bill of Rights D. Pledge of Allegiance B. Bill of Rights

  40. Caufield & Shook Collection, Photographic  Archives, University of Louisville67. The women in the photograph above were suffragists. Suffragists believed that women should A. not work outside the home. C. wear long skirts. B. all be Republicans. D. have the right to vote. D. have the right to vote.

  41. The following question refers to the photograph below of the 1963 March on Washington.Bruce Davidson/Magnum Photos 68. Protests such as the one shown in the photograph are protected by United States law because the protestors are A. over 21 years of age B. behaving peacefully C. not calling for major changes in the American system D. both men and women B. behaving peacefully

  42. 69. Look at the pictures of Ellis Island. What part of history could you learn about by visiting Ellis Island? A. The way the United States became a new country. B. The war the United States fought against Spain. C. How people lived in North America before Europeans arrived? D. Some of the people who came to the United States as immigrants. ********

  43. The following question is about the portion of a speech shown below.    I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: "We hold these truths to be self-evident; that all men are created equal." . . .      I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slaveowners will be able to sit down together at the table of brotherhood . . .      I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character . . .     I have a dream that one day . . . little Black boys and Black girls will be able to join hands with little White boys and girls and walk together as sisters and brothers.70. The speech was given by A. Abraham Lincoln C. Gloria Steinem B. George Bush D. Martin Luther King, Jr. D. Martin Luther King, Jr.

  44. 71. What does the political cartoon above show? A. effects of a new law limiting immigration. B. The need for skilled immigrants to fill jobs created by the boom after the First World War. C. The desire of reformers to provide social services for European immigrants. D. The eagerness of the government to settle immigrants inland rather than in the eastern industrial cities. A. effects of a new law limiting immigration.

  45. 72. According to the pie charts, how did immigration to the United States change between 1854 and 1907? A. The percentage of immigrants coming from southern and eastern Europe increased dramatically. B. The percentage of immigrants coming from Germany and Britain gradually increased. C. By 1907 Russia replaced Britain as the source of the greatest number of immigrants. D. The total number of immigrants coming to the United States declined. *********