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Presented at the First Workshop on Computer Architecture Evaluation Using Commercial Workloads (held with HPCA-4, Las Vegas, February 1, 1998). 3G :The Next Generation. Sridhar Rajagopal. Contributions from: Edouard Bugnion, Jack Lo, and Parthas Ranganathan. Outline . 3G Wireless

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slide1

Presented at theFirst Workshop on Computer Architecture Evaluation Using Commercial Workloads

(held with HPCA-4, Las Vegas, February 1, 1998)

3G :The Next Generation

Sridhar Rajagopal

Contributions from: Edouard Bugnion, Jack Lo, and Parthas Ranganathan

outline
Outline
  • 3G Wireless
  • The World of Mobile Multimedia
  • Introduction - 3G Standards
  • Implementation Issues
  • My idea of the future
3g wireless
3G Wireless
  • 1G
    • Analog voice communications (AMPS)
  • 2G
    • Digital voice
    • Data Services
      • Low to Medium rate (9.6 kbps)
    • DAMPS, GSM, IS-95
  • 3G
    • Integrate Multimedia Services
    • High Data Rates
    • Adaptability of mobile device to the environment.
    • Unite different communication platforms
      • Different standards
      • Different means of communication
the world of mobile multimedia
The World of Mobile Multimedia
  • Take Part in a Video Conference from a Remote Location
  • Share Information to Feel Closer
  • Get What You Want When You Want It!
  • Explore your Intellectual Curiosity in a Mobile Environment
  • Various Security Functions
  • Electronic Account Settlement in a Mobile Environment
          • http://www.nttdocomo.com/….
modes of operation
Modes Of Operation
  • Packet Data Services
  • Real Time Services
  • Mixed Services
    • Supports variable rates of transmission
    • Different QoS requirements
    • Different rates for different environments
      • 2 Mbps : Indoor
      • 384 kbps : Pedestrian
      • 144 kbps : Vehicular
adaptability of the mobile
Adaptability of the Mobile
  • Communication : Anytime, Anywhere……..
  • A ‘Single Appliance’ that can work at
    • Indoor : Wireless /(Wired Ethernet)
    • Outdoor : Wireless
    • Home : Cable Modem / DSL / Wireless
  • REASON for Adaptability : driven by COST
    • Wires are here to stay!
united we stand
United we Stand
  • Different 2G standards
    • GSM, IS-95.
  • Work in the African Jungles, the Sahara Desert, Antartica?
  • Harmonization :
    • UMTS/IMT-2000 : ETSI,ARIB,3GPP,ANSI,ITU
  • Goal :
    • Global Communication
3g layer structure

Packet Data

Voice

Circuit Data

Application

Services

Application

OSI

Signaling

Layers

TCP

UDP

Services

3-7

High Speed

IP

Circuit Network

Layer Services

PPP

Link Access

LAC Protocol

Null LAC

Control (LAC)

OSI

MAC

Medium

Layer

Control

Best Effort Delivery

Access

2

States

(RLP)

Control

(MAC)

QoS Control

Multiplexing

OSI

Layer

Physical Layer

1

3G Layer Structure

http://www.itu.int/imt/2-radio-dev/index.html

wireless network configuration
Wireless Network Configuration

http://www1a.mesh.ne.jp/...

3g standards radio access network
3G Standards - Radio Access Network
  • Improved Capacity (3 dB)
  • Coverage & Link Budget Improvements
  • Power, the Common Resource
    • Adjust Power to limit interference & get QoS.
  • Multiple Parallel Services on a single connection
    • OVSF
  • Link Improvements
    • Multiuser Detection, Transmit Diversity, Adaptive Antennas….
  • Asynchronous Base Station operation
3g standards radio access network1
3G Standards - Radio Access Network
  • Interfrequency Handover
    • Hierarchical Cell Structure (HCS) [ Macro & Micro Overlap]
    • ‘Hot Spots’
      • SCR’s
  • Support for Adaptive Antenna Arrays
  • TDD Mode
the air interface
The Air Interface
  • 5 MHz Bandwidth
    • Resolve more multipaths, capacity
  • Basic Chip Rate
    • 4.096 Mcps
  • Basic Frame Length
    • 10ms
transport channels
Transport Channels
  • Unidirectional
  • Dedicated / Common
      • Broadcast Control (DL)
      • Forward Access (DL)
      • Paging (DL)
      • Random Access (UL)
      • Dedicated (UL/DL)
channel structure

DPCCH

DPCCH

DPCCH

DPCCH

DPCCH

DPCCH

DPDCH

DPDCH

DPDCH

DPDCH

Pilot

Pilot

TPC

TPC

Data2

Data2

FDD

FDD

TFCI

TFCI

Data1

Data1

N

N

bits

bits

N

N

bits

bits

N

N

bits

bits

DOWNLINK

DOWNLINK

N

N

bits

bits

N

N

bits

bits

pilot

pilot

data2

data2

TPC

TPC

TFCI

TFCI

data1

data1

k

T

= 2560 chips, 10*2

bits (k=0..7)

slot

Data

DPDCH

N

bits

data

FDD

UPLINK

FBI

TPC

Pilot

TFCI

DPCCH

N

bits

N

bits

N

bits

N

bits

FBI

TPC

pilot

TFCI

k

T

= 2560 chips, 10*2

bits (k= 0

. . 6)

slot

Channel Structure

1 Frame = 16 slots

spreading and modulation
Spreading and Modulation
  • QPSK Modulated
  • Scrambling Code Length = 1 Frame (40960 chips)
  • Truncated Complex Gold Code (218 -1 ) for Scrambling
  • Uplink
    • Users distinguished by Scrambling Codes
  • Downlink
    • Users distinguished by their Walsh codes
    • Scrambling code to distinguish cells.
channel coding
Channel Coding
  • Rate 1/3 Convolutional Code
    • Low Delay , Moderate Error (10-3)
  • Concatenated Rate 1/3 + Outer RS + Interleaving
    • High Quality (10-6 BER)
  • Turbo Codes
    • High Rate, High Quality
random access channel
Random Access Channel
  • For Acquisition of a Dedicated Channel
  • MS selects spreading codes for preamble/message
  • MS selects spreading factor for message
  • Randomly selects signature & access slot for burst
  • MS - Closed Loop Power Control
  • Transmits
  • If no ACK, repeat!
implementation issues
Implementation Issues
  • ‘Single Appliance’
  • How should the hardware look?
  • Current Application
    • Nokia 9110 Communicator
      • Embedded AMD 486 processor
      • 2 Mb user data
      • 8 Mb memory
      • GEOS Operating System (ver 3.0)
      • Dimensions: 158 x 56 x 27 mm
      • Weight: 253 g
      • Data speed :14,400 bps
implementation issues1
Implementation Issues
  • Various applications have different needs
    • Desired Bandwidth
    • Error Rate
    • Security
  • All applications can use the same memory.
  • Make it Software- reconfigurable.
  • MIT Oxygen Project :
    • Microchip wiring that can be automatically reprogrammed for different tasks.
    • Software controlled Logic Operations
    • Software controlled wire routing.
implementation issues2
Implementation Issues
  • Adaptation to different environments
    • Seamless handover
  • Reconfigurability issues
  • WAP (Wireless Application Protocol) Support
    • Internet services on Mobile appliances.
  • Directions :
    • Dynamically Reconfigurable FPGA’s
    • mNIC
my idea of the wireless future
My Idea of the Wireless Future
  • A laptop 5 times lighter
  • Have a mobile phone attached
  • Ear plug for hands-free talking
  • Size adjustable
  • Low Power
  • Can be attached in front of you
  • Wireless access, anytime, anywhere
  • Can be folded & kept in your pocket!
  • Low COST!
  • Reusable Paper Printer at the Bottom