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Atomic Radius. By: Damen, Kyle, Tim, and Henry. Definition. The distance from the atomic nucleus to the outermost stable electron orbital in a atom at equilibrium. Group Trend. As you go down a column, the atomic radius increases. AP Chem explanation.

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atomic radius

Atomic Radius

By: Damen, Kyle, Tim, and Henry

definition
Definition
  • The distance from the atomic nucleus to the outermost stable electron orbital in a atom at equilibrium.
group trend
Group Trend
  • As you go down a column, the atomic radius increases
ap chem explanation
AP Chem explanation
  • The underlying electrons require some space, so the electrons of the outer shell must be farther from the nucleus.
periodic trends
Periodic Trends
  • As you moves across a row, the radius decreases.
ap chem explanation1
AP Chem explanation
  • There are more protons and electrons with the same outer energy level causing a greater attraction between the outer shell and the nucleus causing a smaller atomic radius.
units for atomic radius
Units for Atomic Radius
  • Picometers (1 x 10-12m)
  • Angstroms (1 x 10-10m)

A helium atom, having a radius of 31 picometers

exceptions
Exceptions
  • On reaching the Groups 1B and 2B elements at the end of the series, the size increases slightly because the d subshell is filled, and the electron-electron repulsions cause the size the increase.
extra stuff just cuz we re in ap
Extra Stuff Just Cuz We’re in AP
  • Positively charged ions have smaller radii than neutral atoms (Stronger relative force from nucleus pulling electrons in and/ or loss of electron shell)
  • Negatively charged ions have larger radii (electrons repel from each other forcing them out more)