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WORLD WAR I. The Spark: Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary. Allied Powers Belgium Serbia England Russia France Later Italy, and U.S. and Japan BSERF. Central Powers Bulgaria Ottoman Empire Germany Austria-Hungary BOGA. The Teams . The Coaches.

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Presentation Transcript
the teams
Allied Powers

Belgium

Serbia

England

Russia

France

Later Italy, and U.S. and Japan

BSERF

Central Powers

Bulgaria

Ottoman Empire

Germany

Austria-Hungary

BOGA

The Teams
the coaches
The Coaches

Central Powers

Franz Joseph, A-H Wilhelm II, Germany

Allied Powers

Czar Nicholas II, Russia, George Clemenceau, FR David Lloyd George, GB Woodrow Wilson, US

playing field7
Eastern Front

Mostly in Russia, along the German/Russian border

More mobile

Battle lines changed often (fluid)

Western Front

Mostly in France, along German/French Border

Trench Warfare

Stalemate – deadlock, where neither side gains an advantage

War of Attrition – no quick victory; each side tries to wear the other side down

Playing Field
1 st play schieffen plan
1st Play: Schieffen Plan
  • Schlieffen Plan – war plan for Germany, created by Alfred von Schlieffen
    • Plan to avoid a two front war
    • Attack France through neutral Belgium
    • Defeat French in 6 weeks before Russia can mobilize
    • Turn and fight Russia
  • Problems:
      • Heavily fortified areas in Belgium
      • Strong resistance from France
      • Russia mobilized quicker
      • Britain attacked from the north
1 st game battle of the marne
1st Game: Battle of the Marne
  • German’s advance into France
  • Pushed back by French at Marne
  • Stalemate and Trench Warfare begin
  • Ends Schlieffen Plan
which of the following correctly represents the allied powers
Which of the following correctly represents the Allied Powers
  • Austria-Hungary, Italy, Germany,
  • Serbia, Russia, France, Great Britain, Belgium
  • Bulgaria, Ottoman Empire, Germany, Austria-Hungary
  • Russia, France, Great Britain, Germany
which of the following describes the fighting on the western front
Which of the following describes the fighting on the western front?
  • Trench warfare, Stalemate
  • Mobile, Changing Battle lines
  • Fought primarily in Russia
  • Fought primarily in France
  • Both 1 and 4
  • Both 2 and 3
which of the following describes the schlieffen plan and its failure
Which of the following describes the Schlieffen Plan and its failure?
  • France’s plan to defeat Germany quickly; Belgium mobilized to quickly
  • Germany’s plan to avoid a two front war; Russia mobilized too quickly
  • Austria-Hungary’s plan to attack Serbia; Russia mobilized too quickly
slide18

Do you think we have enough food and supplies to outlast them?

Do you think we have enough food and supplies to outlast them?

No-Mans

land

These lines haven't moved for a year!

These lines haven't moved for a year!

French soldiers firing over their own dead

All Quiet on the Western Front – trench warfare (9:27)

battle of verdun

Battle of Verdun

German attack on French

Longest battle of WWI (300 days)

Total casualties – 700,000

No clear winner

Stalemate

battle of somme
Battle of Somme
  • British/French surprise attack against Germans
  • British losses 1st day – 60,000 men
  • Total Casualties – 1Million+
  • No clear winner
  • Stalemate
1 st game eastern front battle of tannenberg
1st Game Eastern FrontBattle of Tannenberg
  • Russia vs. Germany
  • Russian Advantages
    • Largest army (15:1 ratio Russian to German)
      • Not well trained
      • Lacked weapons
  • Russian Disadvantages
    • Least industrialized
    • Lack of Modern Technology
  • Who won?
battle of gallipoli23
Battle of Gallipoli
  • Britain’s (Winston Churchill) Game Plan :
    • Open supply route to Russia
    • Capture Dardanelle Straight gaining access to Black Sea
    • Eliminate the Ottoman Empire from the war
  • Bulgaria and Ottoman Empire – promised land by A-H to defend

Dardanelle’s at all cost

  • Allies fail
america neutral

America Neutral?

Not our war

Businesses could sell to both sides

Recent immigrants from both sides

reason for us entry
Reason for US Entry
  • Sinking of the Lusitania
  • Zimmerman Note
  • Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
sinking of the lusitania
Sinking of the Lusitania
  • German u-boat torpedoes British passenger ship off Irish coast
  • 1200 die, 128 Americans
zimmerman note
Zimmerman Note
  • Note from German Foreign Minister to German Ambassador to Mexico
    • Convince Mexico to go to war against US
    • Mexico to gain territory lost in Mex-Am War
    • Prevent U.S. from joining war in Europe
unrestricted submarine warfare
Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
  • German u-boats sink military, passenger, and merchant ships on sight
  • 4 US ships sunk between Jan-Mar 1917
  • US declares war: April 2, 1917
america at war

America At War

American Expeditionary Forces

“Dough Boys”

http://www.firstworldwar.com/audio/overthere.htm

end of war
End of War
  • Second Battle of the Marne (7/18) - Last Major German Offensive
  • Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicates
  • Armistice – Agreement to end fighting 11:00am 11/11/18
global war
Global War
  • Resources and soldiers from colonies
  • Fought in Asia and Africa - Allies gained German colonies
  • British get help from Middle East colonies of Ottoman Empire conquered the Ottoman’s – expected independence at war’s end
lives lost
Lives Lost

Russia 1,700,000

France 1,357,000

Great Britain 908,000

United States 130,174

Germany 1,800,000

Austria 1,200,000

Diseases, hunger, and other war-related causes 20,000,000

Mangled 6,000,000

wilson s fourteen points

Wilson’s Fourteen Points

Three Goals:

Ensure lasting peace

Right to choose government

League of Nations –

International body of representatives from each country with the purpose of maintaining peace

paris peace conference
Paris Peace Conference
  • 5 Separate Peace Treaties known as the Peace of Paris
  • Each Central Power Country signed a separate peace treaty
  • Central Powers not invited
  • Big 4 Allied Powers – Great Britain, US, France, Italy
treaty of versailles
Germany got a R.A.W. Deal

R.eparations – payments to victors for war damages ($33B)

A.llied Punishments

De-militarized Germany

Took Germany’s colonies

Gave Alsace Lorraine to France

Took Saar Basin (coal supplies)

Took Rhineland (buffer zone)

W.ar Guilt – Germany had to accept total blame for the war

Treaty of Versailles

R.

A.

W.

league of nations formed
League of Nations Formed
  • United States didn’t join
    • Congress feared it would drag us into another war
    • Weakened the power of the League of Nations
    • No power to enforce its decisions