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Bio- oil Energy for Rural Keny a By Gichuki Muchiri and Kyalo Kimilu School of Engineering University of Nairobi
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Bio- oil Energy for Rural Kenya By GichukiMuchiri and KyaloKimilu School of Engineering University of Nairobi Vision 2030: Kenya will become a middle income industrial Nation providing adequate access to basic nutrition, health, shelter, education and Transportation to all Kenyans.
Role of Bio-oil on the Kenyan Rural Energy Setting Current Rural and urban Energy Scenario
Bio-Oil Energy Potential If by 2030 half of Kenyan households (4*106) will adopt bio-oil energy for cooking and heating they will consume approximately 0.4 t* 106 tones of bio-oil Saving Foreign exchange of kes 32 billion Approximately 10% of oil imports How can this be achieved?
There is a need to change the energy use pattern in order to: • Reduce Wood consumption • Reduce Consumption of charcoal, Kerosene and LPG • Reduce emissions of Green house gases.(GHG) • Improve the quality of life • Save Foreign Exchange
We have not succeeded so far partly because: 1.0 Solar energy is expensive to install 2.0 Wind energy • Capital Intensive • Unreliable and • Require a large economy of scale 3.0 Biogas energy • Capital intensive and • Require a large economy of Scale
4.0 Gasification technology • Complexand • Require large economy of scale 5.0 Bio-diesel • Capital intensive and • Require ethanol for transestherisation 6.0 Bio-oil • Inadequate feedstock
Which is more appropriate for rural Kenya? Bio-diesel or Bio-oil? * Employment for tractor/engine operation, oil press and oil seed production
Big Question: Is there sufficient land to grow Castor? Assuming that half of the 8 million Kenya homes will by 2030 adopt a bio-oil cooking and heating stove (Protos) at 8 litres per month The bio- oil requirement equals (4.0 * 106 households * 12 months * 8 litres) Approximately 400 * 106litresper annum
Continue. 1 kg castor seed produces 0.4 litres. Therefore castor seed required equals 400 * 106litres/0.4 litres/kg =1,000 *106 Kg Or 1 million tones of castor seeds At 2 tones per ha per year 500,000 ha of land is required This is less that 10% of Kenyan 11.0 million ha Semi arid land
Mechanized conservation tillage 1.2 million ha cropping cultivation is targeted by 2030. Castor as a source of tractor fuel is proposed. Castor legume inter crop is appropriate for conservation farming.. Oil requirements for 45 kW tractor equals 45Kw * 1,000 hrs/yr *0.411 litres/kWh = 22123.2 litres/yr 83.6 *10-2 where; Specific fuel consumption equals 0.411litres/kWh Bio- oil calorific value equals 83.6% of convectional diesel
Continue. At 0.4 liters per kg oil seed requirement equals 55308 kg Which is approximately 30ha assuming 2,000kg seed yield per ha per year. Working 10 hrs per day for 60 days working period the tractor can cater for 600 acres (240) using 30 ha (12.5 %) only for it’s fuel.
Summary Fuel for 240 ha with a tractor supporting 60 households: 60*8 litres * 12 months 5760litres Add tractor fuel 22123 Total 27883 Seed required equals 27883/0.4 litres/kg = 69708 kg No of ha equals 35 ha Approximately 1/2 ha per household or 1/8 of the family land Thus energy self reliance is achieved