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eCollaboration and Enterprise Content Management. IS 904 Tero Päivärinta University of Agder 3.9.2010. Agenda. Possibility to log-in 8.30 for those needing practice in Live Meeting as such Groups & Group work topics? Some ideas lifted up for everyone

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ecollaboration and enterprise content management

eCollaboration and Enterprise Content Management

IS 904

Tero Päivärinta

University of Agder

3.9.2010

agenda
Agenda
  • Possibility to log-in 8.30 for those needing practice in Live Meeting as such
  • Groups & Group work topics?
      • Some ideas lifted up for everyone
  • A closer look at & closer comparison of the three main concepts – Discussion-oriented ”go-through”
    • ECM
    • eCollaboration
    • Social Computing / Web 2.0
  • Sharing the cases
groups group work topics
Groups / Group work topics
  • The newcomers in the course – brief introduction round?
  • Situation
basic concepts
Basic Concepts
  • Enterprise Content Management (ECM)
    • ”integrated enterprise-wide management of the life cycles of all forms of recorded information content and their metadata, organized according to corporate taxonomies and supported by appropriate technological and administrative infrastructures” Munkvold et al. 2006
    • ”strategies, tools, processes, and skills an organization needs to manage its information assets over their life cycle – including assets such as documents, data, reports and web pages” (Smith and McKeen, 2003)
history content management
History – Content management
  • Archival/library science -> document management -> content management
    • Library of Alexandria (200 BC), medieval monasteries -> libraries
      • information retrieval
    • Records management (paper, microfiche etc.-> electronic records)
      • metadata, longevity, retention
    • Electronic document (file) management (1960-70s)
    • Relational databases (1960-70s)
      • technical separation from ”file management”
    • Structured documents (1980s)
      • e.g. SGML -> XML, granularity of content blurred from ”file”
    • (Web) content management (mid-1990s)
    • (Content) portals (2000)
      • unified access to all recorded information -> finally logically under the same ”umbrella”
example cm systems in statoil 2003
Example: CM ”systems” in Statoil 2003
  • Effective search and navigation depends on you knowing where the information is stored, such as
    • The internet browser and Eureka
    • Start-meny and Active Desktop
    • Lotus Notes workspaces
    • Lotus Notes database catalogue
    • Citrix Program Neighborhood
    • Docmap and Virtual Library
    • Common and private disks
    • Internal Net Sites
    • 165 different formats in digital libraries and archives ..
slide7

How many ”content managementsystems” exists in this course / UiA?Is content managed to a satisfactory extent?(If not, what would be the most ”interesting” areas?)Does it make sense to phraseECM this widely? Why, why not?

main objectives and desired impacts of ecm
Main objectives and desired impacts (of ECM)
  • improved internal & external collaboration
  • value-added / new customer services and products
  • reliability & quality of information content
  • modern/professional image of organization
  • efficiency, effectiveness, flexibility of work
  • meaningfulness of work
  • organizational memory
  • direct cost savings (info operations & facilities)
  • compliance to external regulations & standards
  • platforms & capabilities to develop targeted applications quickly
basic concepts 2
Basic concepts (2)
  • eCollaboration
    • ”global access to and the management of a common pool of digital assets used to collaborate, support work processes and share information between the company and their customers, employees and business partners” (Statoil eCollaboration strategy, 2002)
history collaboration technologies
History – collaboration technologies
  • 1960s Stanford (Englebart) – first ideas of hypertext, word processing, data conferencing
  • ”Office automation” – early 1980s
  • Computer-supported cooperative work (CSCW) – 1984
    • merger of telecommunication & computers
  • Since, a large number of technologies under varying labels
    • knowledge management, digital collaboration, eCollaboration, c-Commerce…
    • document-based systems / workflows early included also in the concept of eCollaboration
time space matrix of traditional collaboration technology
”Time-space” matrix of ”traditional” collaboration technology

Same time

Different time

Same place

Different place

Adapted from DeSanctis & Gallupe -87

categories of ecollaboration technologies
Categories of eCollaboration Technologies
  • Communication
    • E-mail, IM, audio/videoconf.
  • Shared information space
    • Document mgmt, team/project rooms, data conferencing, application sharing, electronic bulletin boards
  • Meeting support
    • Electronic meeting systems
  • Coordination
    • Workflow mgmt, calendar & scheduling
  • Integrated products
    • Collaboration product suites, integrated team support packages, e-learning systems
basic concepts 3
Basic Concepts (3)
  • Social computing (a.k.a. Web 2.0, online communities)

-”A large number of new [Web] applications and services that facilitate collective action and social interaction online with rich exchange of multimedia information and evolution of aggregate knowledge… Examples include blogs, wikis, social bookmarking, peer-to-peer networks, open source communities, photo and video sharing communities, and online business networks.” (Parameswaran & Whinston 07)

history of social computing
History of ”social computing”
  • Early on-line multi-player games 1970s, Zork (MIT, 1977) MUD (Multi-user dungeon, Essex UK, 1978)
  • WWW – CERN 1980s, early 1990s
    • ”Web 1.0 was all about connecting people. It was an interactive space, and I think Web 2.0 is of course a piece of jargon, nobody even knows what it means. If Web 2.0 for you is blogs and wikis, then that is people to people. But that was what the Web was supposed to be all along.” (Tim Berners-Lee)
  • Napster (1999-2001) – peer-to-peer MP3 sharing
  • The rest… applications on the WWW
    • ”collaboration”, social interaction, blurring fun & serious networking, outside the corporate boundaries
  • Enterprises started to interest in possibilities to utilize these technologies/ideas since the early 2000s
basic concepts1
Basic Concepts

Difficult to categorize? Examples.

Social Computing

eCollaboration

2nd life

Facebook

Wikipedia

Telephone

conferencing

WWW-games

LinkedIn

IM

MSN

Del.ici.ous

Corporate

WWW-site

Extranet

E-mail

YouTube

Corporate Wiki

Calendar

Corporate

portal

Blog

TeamSite

Document-based

workflow

Folksonomy

Flickr

Corporate taxonomy,

metadata

Data/Document

storage

Enterprise search

Records management, archiving

Enterprise Content Management

framework for further discussion

Enterprise

Model

Objectives

Impacts

Content

Model

Infrastructure

Administration

Change

Management

Framework for further discussion

People / Culture

Communication /

Argument:

In addition to ECM, also

e-Collaboration and social

computing applications in enterprises

require a holistic understanding of these issues (the elements of people, culture &

communication model added to the picture, if compared to Päivärinta & Munkvold 05)

why these altogether
Why these altogether?
  • line of argumentation:
    • ECM – basis for any serious information processing in the enterprise
    • …but ECM is providing limited value alone, unless adopted to support information utilization by groups (or even crowds)
      • organizational uses needs to be discussed together with eCollaboration in general
    • …while social computing innovations provide new opportunities for enterprises to utilize collaboration
      • …where information content often still needs to be managed, both content used as a basis & content resulting from this social computing.
    • I.e. The trend is that organizations need to utilize integrated information systems with elements of all of these.
      • numerous challenges
an important remark
An important remark
  • This course is interested in the enterprise view on these ideas and technologies.
    • e.g. all of the ideas related to particular concepts or technologies need to have some significance or use for an enterprise
    • (e.g. Facebook’s importance for maintaining personal social connections is not per se in our interests, whereas it will be, if we can utilize it for a business purpose)
summary 2

Social computing

eCollaboration

ECM

Summary (2)

t

framework

Enterprise

Model

Objectives

Impacts

Content

Model

Infrastructure

Administration

Change

Management

Framework

People / Culture

Communication /

ecm objectives impacts
ECM: Objectives & impacts
  • Thinking exercise & discussion: go through each objective for 1-2 minutes (alone or groups):
    • What would the following things be concretely in university courses (1 example per each)?
    • …and how to measure them?
  • ECM objectives / desired impacts (Päivärinta & Munkvold 05):
    • Improving internal / external collaboration
    • Value-added / new customer services and products
    • Reliability and quality of content, less errors in products and practices
    • Modern & professional image
  • (to be continued on the next slide)
ecm objectives impacts cont
ECM: Objectives & impacts (cont.)
    • Efficiency, effectiveness, flexibility of knowledge work / business processes
    • Meaningful knowledge work / less tedious routines
    • Organizational memory
    • Direct cost savings (e.g. of information processing, etc.)
    • Satisfying external regulations / standards
    • Platforms / capabilities to develop / maintain targeted (and emerging) content management applications
  • Do you find any other categories? (let us know…)
a wider view ecm vs ecollaboration vs social computing objectives
eCollaboration objectives

Collaboration effectiveness of teams & groups highlighted

Often also informal teams -> less organization-unit-focused thinking than in ECM

Knowledge ”mobilization” here and now

Customer contact

Quality of decisions (i.e. group-decisions are better?)

(direct (travel) cost savings + cutting non-meaningful travels)

Image?

”Platforms”

Highlights the team/group view and often task-oriented focus on ”now”

To exaggerate: (ECM mostly ”organization / enterprise –oriented” ?)

Social comp. Objectives

”Individually-originated objectives turn to loose community-feelings”

Keeping oneself upgraded on ”what’s fancy”

Expressing oneself

Connecting people who like to be connected

Knowledge exchange as a happy ”side product”?

Building voluntary competence networks

Image?

Meaningfulness of the social milieu – the work should also be socially and intellectually rewarding (even fun)

Person-oriented focus on satisfaction at work (and social-human relations)

Assumption: knowledge sharing and other benefits follow this…

A Wider View: ECM vs. eCollaboration vs. Social computing: Objectives
framework1

Enterprise

Model

Objectives

Impacts

Content

Infrastructure

Administration

Change

Management

Framework

People / Culture

Communication /

ecm content model s
ECM: Content model(s)
  • Discussion: What would the following elements be in UiA’s course content ”model(s)”? Examples?
    • Content presentations, structures, views?
    • Content life-cycle
    • Metadata
    • (Corporate) taxonomies (vs.? ”folksonomies”)
  • Discussion 2: What needs to be ”modelled”?
  • Discussion 3: Who ”meets” the content model(s) in practice and how?
    • i.e. who needs to be knowledgeable of ”content modelling”, concerning the particular areas of it?
  • Discussion 4: Is / Can / Should there be ”enterprise-wide” content modelling?
ecm vs ecollaboration vs social computing content communication model
eCollaboration

Ad hoc group communication an important part

Meetings, e-mails, instant messages etc. ”abstract” categories of communication

Combined to more formal ”genres”

Need to manage content in relation to most usual group communications tasks

Social computing

Communications about oneself (profiles, interests, humour, expertise)

Structures to network under common interests

Rich communication means, free sharing

Video, pictures, comparisons…

Quick and flexible linking of information

”Folksonomies” (vs. ”taxonomies” to organize content of interest

Platform for ”citizen” movements… opinion-expressing

ECM vs. eCollaboration vs. Social computing: Content/Communication model
framework2

Enterprise

Objectives

Impacts

Content

Model

Infrastructure

Administration

Change

Management

Framework

People / Culture

Communication /

ecm enterprise model s
ECM: Enterprise model(s)
  • ”… a shared idea about what needs to be done in the enterprise, who does what, who is in charge of what.”?
  • A number of different ”conceptualizations” and their mixtures
    • Business / support processes, tasks
    • Resources, roles, teams, organization units (budgeting entities)
    • Projects
    • Geographical sites
    • even persons… etc.
  • How to organize content ownership / responsibilities?
  • Discussion: What ”enterprise models” are in active use in UiA / courses?
    • Who decides? – or… is there many competing ones?
    • Do the ”enterprise-models-in-use” match to the models indicated by information systems applications?
  • Discussion: How do particular kinds of objectives relate to particular kinds of ideas of the enterprise? (i.e. what is the unit for analysis for expected benefit from developing ECM according to a particular goal?)
ecm vs ecollaboration vs social computing enterprise model
eCollaboration

Generic ideas about the group / team collaboration scenarios

Tasks and task sequences, generic / technical types of user roles

Meeting host, participants

Specialized applications may build more focused and formalized role structures

Often crosses e.g. budget unit boundaries

”Formalizes” cross-unit task groups?

Social computing

Networks of people with common interests

Relationships build around common interests or previous social relations

Makes ”the informal organization” visible?

Could that be used for enterprise purposes?

”Visible individuals” and ”responders”

E.g. blogging typically not practiced by many, but commenting can then be

ECM vs. eCollaboration vs. Social computing: Enterprise model
framework3

Enterprise

Model

Objectives

Impacts

Content

Model

Infrastructure

Change

Management

Framework

People / Culture

Communication /

Administration

ecm it infrastructure
ECM: IT infrastructure
  • All the hardware & software & IT services needed to make ECM work
    • Analysis alternatives – which relate to which content / part of enterprise / type of people…?
  • Infrastructure challenges in ECM:
    • Integrating applications & tools throughout content life-cycle
    • Seamless user experience of content retrieval and production
    • Update management of hardware, software, and even operating systems (still)
    • Technology updates to make content sharing among applications & devices possible (towards ”application-independent” content formats ?)
    • Information security issues
    • Lately: competing infrastructures between different parts of enterprises
      • Mergers, or otherwise.
ecm vs ecollaboration vs social computing it infrastructure
eCollaboration

In addition to ECM

Mostly a (more or less standardized) set of available person-to-person and team communication tools, sponsored by the enterprise

Technical challenge: accessibility and stability of use

Social computing

So far: web-based applications (more or less) ”allowed” to be used by companies

Technical challenge: information security?

To become: ever more integrated as a part of content mgmt & e-collaboration ”offices”

Problem – does it then work only inside a firm?

ECM vs. eCollaboration vs. Social computing:IT infrastructure
framework4

Enterprise

Model

Objectives

Impacts

Content

Model

Infrastructure

Administration

Change

Management

Framework

People / Culture

Communication /

ecm administration issues
ECM: Administration issues
  • Regulations, standards, policies, routines, administrative procedures
  • Awareness
  • Organizational support for new roles?
    • From local archivists to support persons for global production / retrieval of content
    • Cf. J. D. Edwards – five new organizational roles to support new content mgmt applications
  • Technical support
  • Discussion: Which administration issues are the most challenging ones?
ecm vs ecollaboration vs social computing administration
eCollaboration

Awareness

Motivation to adopt

Support for learning

Ability to adopt

Cultivating the practices

E.g. ”good e-meeting practice” beside mastering the tools as such

Social computing

”What counts as real work”?

Policy, shared culture

(less individual adoption problems among younger employees?)

Information security practice

E.g. anonymity not allowed

ECM vs. eCollaboration vs. Social computing: Administration
framework5

Enterprise

Model

Objectives

Impacts

Content

Model

Infrastructure

Administration

Change Management

Framework

People / Culture

Communication /

change management
Change management
  • Justification of ECM initiatives
    • How to make a business case to get corporate sponsoring?
    • From justification to ”benefits management”
  • Maintaining mgmt support & development resources
    • ECM is seldomly a ”project”, but a process
  • Competence acquisition & upkeep
    • AIIM Feb 2008 – Lack of ECM competence does not cease in the foreseeable future
  • Organizational / user resistance for change / standardization
    • Again: ”Benefits management” -> Benefits realization
    • How to involve users?
      • Often ”benefit disparity”
  • Discussion: How well is change management taken into account in previous content mgmt / collaboration initiatives at UiA?
ecm vs ecollaboration vs social computing change mgmt
eCollaboration

Key issue: how to introduce new tools so that they reach a ”critical mass” of users within a relatively short time-frame

Illustrative business cases to motivate /justify

Individual users

Organizational sponsors

”What is the value of our e-mail application?”

(We’ll come back to implementation issues in organizations later)

Social computing

Key issue: how to make potential value of social computing clear for management?

Obstructive: how to ”fight” against employee use of soc. comp.?

Supportive: how to foster a sensible ”corporate attitude” and to make it clear to all employees?

”Why should our employees mingle during the office hours?”

Who should pay for implementing these in the corporation?

ECM vs. eCollaboration vs. Social computing: Change mgmt
summary
Summary
  • ECM, eCollaboration & Social computing highlight slightly different issues
    • Objectives / impacts, enterprise, communication/content models, infrastructure issues, administration & change management challenges
  • In addition to ECM, eCollaboration & social computing perhaps highlight more
    • People-oriented issues
    • ”Cultivation” of corporate culture
    • ”ECM” is more driven and cultivated by content management professionals, should be almost ”invisible” background service for users
      • Vs. eCollaboration & social computing!
framework6

Enterprise

Model

Objectives

Impacts

Content

Model

Infrastructure

Administration

Change

Management

Framework

People / Culture

Communication /

culture
Culture
  • Foci – Cultural ”main differences”
    • ECM – robust management of ”enterprise information”
    • eCollaboration – effective groups / teams on more or less pre-known tasks
    • Social computing – individual motivations to self-expression, social networking, fun -> ”happy accidents” of knowledge mobilization?
people
”People”
  • Discussion
    • What kind of people-related issues can / need to be managed / recognized?
      • ECM
      • eCollaboration
      • social computing
the cases
The Cases
  • Go-through Tero’s list of suggestions in the SharePoint Team site
  • Any comments?