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Audio

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  1. Audio

  2. Why Audio • Essential tool for • Interface • Narrative • Setting & Mood

  3. Sound as Interface • Sound as supplemental channel • reinforce visuals

  4. Sound as Interface • Sound as alternative channel • avoid visual overload • provide information about hidden events

  5. Sound as Interface • Accessibility • Are sounds essential for game?

  6. Voice Acting • Specialists – outside actors • Need to fit non-linear narrative • Alternative takes to common lines

  7. Game Music http://www.penny-arcade.com/patv/episode/video-game-music

  8. Film vs Game Score • Film scores can be shaped to exact moments • Possible only in game cut scenes

  9. Film vs Game Score • General game music • Needs to play for undetermined time : looped • Want to adapt to situation • Layer or transition adaptively

  10. Sound as a Priority • Sound as a primary mechanic:http://killscreendaily.com/articles/articles/how-sound-shapes-changed-game-music-forever/

  11. Sound Files

  12. How are sounds stored on a computer? • Encoded as binary numbers (1’s and 0’s) • Two important encodings for our purposes: • MIDI sequences • Samples

  13. MIDI • Musical Instrument Digital Interface • Sheet music for your computer • Developed in 60’s • VERY compact: ~1% of mp3 • User’s sound card is responsible for creating the music. • Different sound cards = different sounds

  14. Anvil Studio • Anvil Studio is a free MIDI editor:

  15. Samples • Sounds are pressure waves:

  16. Samples • Sampling : convert pressure wave to discrete points - smaples • Sample = intensity at point in time

  17. Samples • Sample rate: The rate at which the samples are captured or played back • measured in Hertz (Hz), or samples per second • More Hertz = higher quality and larger files • An audio CD has a sample rate of 44,100 Hz, or 44 KHz • Sample rate = horizontal precision

  18. Samples • Sample formator sample size: the number of digits used to represent each sample • Measured in bits (binary digits - 1 or 0) • Audio CD = 16 bits • More bits = higher quality and higher file size • Sample format = vertical precision

  19. Sampled formats • CD Audio = 16 bits x 44,000 times a second • ~10 megabytes per minute of stereo recording • Bits stored into file either compressed or raw: • Compressed: PCM (wav, aiff) • Compressed: mp3, ogg, aac, etc…

  20. PCM • PCM : Pulse Code Modulation • Windows usually .wav • Macs usually aiff • Very big • Easy to play

  21. mp3 etc… • Compressed formats • Reduce file size to ~ 1/10th the space. • Playback takes more work (decode audio)

  22. Gamemaker • Gamemaker 8 deals best with wavs • MIDI, MP3 play only one at a time • GM Studio • Coverts everything to .ogg • Legacy Sound : For HTML 5 • GM:S Audio : New engine • 3d sound effects

  23. Sounds in Gamemaker • Normal : sound effects • Can have multiple playing at one time • Background Music : only one plays at a time • Start a new background and the old background turns off