What is Intelligence?. Chapter 8 Intelligence and Individual Differences. SO, what did you get on your SATs? Jane said she got a 1350…that means she’s really smart, right? Does it?. Module Objectives: What is intelligence? How do we measure intelligence?
Intelligence and Individual Differences
What is intelligence?
How do we measure intelligence?
Who are the children whose intelligence sets them apart from their peers?
How do YOU define Intelligence?
Is it the ability to use reason and logic?Is it the ability to write and speak clearly?Is it limited to one’s performance in school?Is it behavior in social situations?How about knowing when you’re wrong?
Not that simple, right?
There are many psychological theories about intelligence that we will examine in this module
Psychometricians specialize in measuring psychological characteristics for intelligence and personality. By using patterns of test scores, they have found evidence for general intelligence as well as for specific abilities
Conflicting theories have led many psychometric theorists to propose hierarchical theories of intelligence that include both general and specific components
Some critics still find it unsatisfactory because it ignored the research and theory on cognitive development
The question arises… should we use the word intelligence to describe all valuable skills like doing calculus, speaking 6 different languages, being able to make the throw from home to second?
If we do… then Gardner is correct… people do have many unrelated kinds of intelligence. Now we have changed the definition and meaning of intelligence
The best known is emotional intelligence
The first Intelligence test was created by Binet and Simon using simple tasks to distinguish children who would do well in school from those who wouldn’t
Binet and Simon used Mental age to distinguish “bright” from “dull” children
Five --or-- Ten --or-- Fifteen --or-- Fifty
The Bayley Scales of Infant Development are often used for infant assessment
To answer this question we must examine Reliability and Validity
This is a question of validity. Does the test measure what it claims to measure?
Most test developers argue that their tests are valid measures of intelligence by showing that test scores are related to children’s grades in school