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Chapter 4 Urban Land Values, Transportation Costs Impact and the Urban Form. “Real Estate Principles for the New Economy”: Norman G. Miller and David M. Geltner. Major Topics. How transportation costs and productivity affect land values in a city

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chapter 4 urban land values transportation costs impact and the urban form
Chapter 4Urban Land Values, Transportation Costs Impact and the Urban Form

“Real Estate Principles for the New Economy”: Norman G. Miller and David M. Geltner

major topics
Major Topics
  • How transportation costs and productivity affect land values in a city
  • Why and how a freely functional competitive land market will lead to land being used at its “highest and best use”
  • The impact of population growth, transport nodes and regulation on land values and density
  • The nature and cause of the major characteristics of the urban form of the typical American city, and how this form has been changing
  • The nature of competition between central cities and suburbs for residents and business

“Real Estate Principles for the New Economy”: Norman G. Miller and David M. Geltner

the old real estate clich
The old Real Estate cliché

Only three things matter in real estate:

Maybe today it is

Location

Location

Bandwidth

  • LOCATION
  • LOCATION
  • LOCATION

“Real Estate Principles for the New Economy”: Norman G. Miller and David M. Geltner

urban form
Urban Form

Physical spatial characteristics of a city

  • Size
  • Population density
  • Density variation in different parts

A sprawled urban form with multiple focus points and more even land values.

A steep urban form with a central focus of intense land use and value

Value

“Real Estate Principles for the New Economy”: Norman G. Miller and David M. Geltner

residual nature of land value
Residual Nature of Land Value
  • Four basic “factors of production
  • Labor, capital and raw materials are “mobile” factors
  • Land is not “mobile”

“Real Estate Principles for the New Economy”: Norman G. Miller and David M. Geltner

transportation costs
Transportation Costs
  • A major reason for differences in land value from one location to another.
  • Transport costs are part of “mobile” costs, hence lower transport cost = higher land value
  • When the highest and best use of land wins the site the aggregate transportation costs are minimized for the market as whole

“Real Estate Principles for the New Economy”: Norman G. Miller and David M. Geltner

the bid rent curve

Land Rent

A

B

C

Zone of Use B

Center

Distance from Center

The “Bid-Rent” Curve
  • The “bid-rent” is the maximum rent that a potential user would be willing to pay for a site or location – below we have a monocentric city.

Bid-Rent Functions of Three Land Uses With

Differing Productivity & Sensitivity to Transport Cost

“Real Estate Principles for the New Economy”: Norman G. Miller and David M. Geltner

changes in productivity influence value across space equally
Changes in Productivity Influence Value Across Space Equally

“Real Estate Principles for the New Economy”: Norman G. Miller and David M. Geltner

changes in transportation costs influence value more as distance increases
Changes in Transportation Costs Influence Value More as Distance Increases

“Real Estate Principles for the New Economy”: Norman G. Miller and David M. Geltner

distortion of land use patterns polycentric or multiple nuclei cities
Distortion of Land Use Patterns: Polycentric or Multiple Nuclei Cities
  • Real world cities are not purely monocentric, they have other major activity areas (MACs) besides the CBD.
  • Large cities are sprinkled with neighborhood business districts (NBDs) that serve needs of local communities

CBD where land value is highest

Multiple clusters of economic centers

Suburban retail and office cluster

CBD

NBD

NBD

NBD

“Real Estate Principles for the New Economy”: Norman G. Miller and David M. Geltner

clustering land uses into sectors and zoning
Clustering Land Uses into Sectors and Zoning
  • Originally aimed at minimizing negative externalities from one land use towards another by grouping similar land use together
  • Such clustering and separation of uses tends to increase transport costs and encourage “sprawl”, i.e. lower densities of land use
  • Currently only planned communities are able to circumvent traditional zoning regulations

“Real Estate Principles for the New Economy”: Norman G. Miller and David M. Geltner

consider population changes and land use regulation or constraints
Consider Population Changes and Land Use Regulation or Constraints
  • First a monocentric city showing land rents
  • Then impose boundary constraints on a growing city

“Real Estate Principles for the New Economy”: Norman G. Miller and David M. Geltner

a cross section of land rents
A Cross-Section of Land Rents

L

L

C

C

A

A

CBD

B

B

A = Agricultural Rent

C = Construction Rent

L = Location Rent

CBD = Central Business District

B = Urban Boundary

If the city grows but is constrained rents will push up in the central area within the boundary.

“Real Estate Principles for the New Economy”: Norman G. Miller and David M. Geltner

the new smart growth rhetoric
The New Smart Growth Rhetoric
  • How can you argue against “smart”?
  • Growth boundaries increase central land values as an area grows but it also makes it more expensive for future residents.

“Real Estate Principles for the New Economy”: Norman G. Miller and David M. Geltner

market solutions to traffic congestion and pollution
Market Solutions to Traffic Congestion and Pollution
  • Cities and counties could encourage walkable communities with flexible mixed use cluster zoning and green buildings
  • Incentives to developers to consider smarter planning… viz. faster processing of zoning change requests, assistance with infill land assembly etc.

“Real Estate Principles for the New Economy”: Norman G. Miller and David M. Geltner

the growth of suburbia
The Growth of Suburbia…
  • Factors contributing to the dispersion of the urban core are:
    • Decrease in the price of cars
    • Building of the Interstate system

“Real Estate Principles for the New Economy”: Norman G. Miller and David M. Geltner

and why this is a problem for local governments
… And why this is a problem for local governments
  • Governmental and public services of the central city are usually not decreased in line with fewer residents
  • In most American cities, the middle and upper income population has largely left the central urban core, placing most purchasing power in the suburbs
  • Increased transportation costs caused by traffic congestion further disperses households and jobs

“Real Estate Principles for the New Economy”: Norman G. Miller and David M. Geltner

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“Real Estate Principles for the New Economy”: Norman G. Miller and David M. Geltner