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JFK & LBJ: The New Frontier & The Great Society. Unit 13: The Tumultuous Sixties RUSH Mrs. Baker. The Election of 1960. Candidates: Democrat = John F. Kennedy Republican = Richard Nixon Impact of television 1 st televised presidential debate – Sept. 26, 1960

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jfk lbj the new frontier the great society

JFK & LBJ:The New Frontier & The Great Society

Unit 13: The Tumultuous Sixties


Mrs. Baker

the election of 1960
The Election of 1960
  • Candidates:
    • Democrat = John F. Kennedy
    • Republican = Richard Nixon
  • Impact of television
    • 1st televised presidential debate – Sept. 26, 1960
      • JFK was highly successful
      • Lingering doubts about his inexperience and religion (Roman Catholic) were put to rest.
  • Won the election by less than 119,000 votes.
jfk s inaugural address january 20 1961
JFK’s Inaugural Address – January 20, 1961

Remembering the Presidency of JFK

alliance of progress
Alliance of Progress
  • Goal
    • Improve relations with Latin America and stop the spread of communism
      • Pledged $20 billion to help economic development in Latin America
  • Results
    • Aid often went to repressive governments simply because they were anticommunist.
bay of pigs
Bay of Pigs
  • JFK approved a CIA plan to overthrow Fidel Castro
    • Communist leader in Cuba
  • Plan
    • Cuban exiles would invade Cuba and set off a popular uprising against Castro
      • U.S. would supply arms, material and training
  • Results:
    • Invasion took place on April 17, 1961 at the Bay of Pigs
      • BUT… No uprising followed
    • Castro’s troops quickly crushed the invading forces
      • Embarrassment to JFK and US government
cuban missile crisis
Cuban Missile Crisis
  • Castro agreed to a Soviet plan to base nuclear missiles aimed at the US in Cuba
  • JFK’s response:
    • Oct. 22, 1962:
      • U.S. begins naval blockade of Cuba and demanded Soviets withdraw the missiles.
      • Brought the US and the Soviet Union to the brink of war
    • Soviets backed down and withdrew their missiles.
  • Results:
    • US recovered somewhat from the failure of the Bay of Pigs
    • Limited Test Ban Treaty (1963)
      • US, Soviet Union, and Great Britain signed nuclear test ban treaty
      • Agreed not to test nuclear weapons in the air, in outer space, or under the sea.
      • Underground testing was permitted
the berlin wall
The Berlin Wall
  • June 1961
    • JFK & Khrushchev met to discuss the relations between the US and USSR
    • Khrushchev tried to threaten Kennedy into removing NATO troops from Europe.
      • Result:
        • JFK increased US military and financial commitment to West Germany
  • Result
    • East German government built a wall between East and West Berlin
the new frontier

[Americans need to] Be “new pioneers” and explore “uncharted areas of science and space… unconquered pockets of ignorance and prejudice, unanswered questions of poverty and surplus.”

The New Frontier
the space program
The Space Program
  • National space program
    • Goal = to land on the moon
  • July 1969
    • Neil Armstrong took the first step on the moon.
addressing poverty abroad
Addressing Poverty Abroad
  • The Peace Corps
    • Program sent thousands of American volunteers to developing nations.
      • Trained local people in technical, educational, and health programs.
        • Intended to offset the growth of communism
tragedy in dallas
Tragedy in Dallas
  • November 22, 1963
    • Dallas, Texas
      • John F. Kennedy was assassinated
  • Lee Harvey Oswald was arrested for the murder of JFK
    • Oswald was murdered by Jack Ruby when he was being transported between jails

The Great Society




the great society
The Great Society
  • Legislative program that would end poverty and racial injustice
  • Key Areas of Focus:
    • Education
    • Healthcare
    • Housing
    • Immigration
    • The Environment
    • Consumer protection
major legislations
Major Legislations…
  • Economic Opportunity Act (EOA)
    • Approved nearly $1 billion for youth programs, antipoverty measures, small-business loan, and job training.
    • Legislation created:
      • Job Corp Youth Training Program
      • VISTA (Volunteers in Service to America)
      • Project Head Start
        • Education program for underprivileged preschoolers
        • Domestic Peace Corp
      • Community Action program
        • Encouraged poor people to participate in public-works programs
major legislations continued
Major Legislations Continued…
  • Elementary and Secondary Education Act (1965)
    • Provided $1billion in federal aid to education
      • Greatest amount to schools with low-income families.
  • Medicare
    • Health care coverage provided by federal government to people over 65 years of age.
  • Medicaid
    • State funded program to help needy not covered by Medicare
  • Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD)
    • Oversees efforts to improve housing and aid economic development of cities.
      • Robert C. Weaver = first black cabinet member
  • Foodstamp Program (1964)
    • Created to provide assistance to low-income families to purchase food.
what did the court do
What Did the Court Do?
  • Banned prayer in public schools
  • Declared state-loyalty oaths unconstitutional
  • Limited power of community to censor books and films
  • Said that free speech included wearing black armbands to school by antiwar students.
  • Brought change to state and federal reapportionment
  • Brought change to the criminal justice system
  • Baker v. Carr (1962)
    • Court has jurisdiction over apportionment of seats in state legislatures
    • Overrepresentation of rural voters and under representation of urban voters was a violation of 14th amendment.
      • Called for reapportionment of voting districts.
        • Way in which states redraw election districts based on the changing number of people in them.
rights of the accused
Rights of the Accused
  • Mapp v. Ohio (1961)
    • Evidence illegally seized could not be used in state courts.
    • Exclusionary rule
  • Gideon v. Wainwright (1963)
    • Criminal courts must provide free legal counsel to those who could not afford it.
  • Escobedo v. Illinois (1964)
    • Accused has the right to an attorney while being questioned
  • Miranda v. Arizona (1966)
    • All suspects must be read their rights before being questioned.
      • Miranda rights: right to remain silent, right to an attorney, and what they say can be used against them in the court of law.