Cognitive Development • Mental activities • Cognitive development • Organisation and thinking process • Reasoning abilities
Changes in the adolescent stage: • Language ability • Ability in making decision • Memory and reasoning capacity
Piaget’s Theory • Concrete Operational stage (6-11) Thinking and reasoning ability is limited only to object that can be seen concretely. • Formal Operational stage ( 12 & above). • Hypothesis testing (scientific & matured) • Understand complex and abstract issues. • Predict & Planning • Long term planning
Cognitive Development increases markedly during adolescence! ~Teens begin to use formal operations to solve problems during this period of their growth. • Piaget’s approach to cognitive development has had a significant influence on developmental psychologists. • FORMAL OPERATIONS PERIOD is the stage during which people develop the ability to think abstractly. • Piaget asserted that children enter this stage at the beginning of adolescence
Criticisms of Piaget's theory and approach. • Research finds individual differences in cognitive abilities not universal. • Some researchers suggest that cognitive development is more continuous, less step-like than Piaget proposed. • Piaget underestimated the skills of infants and young children. • Piaget focused only on thinking and knowing, missing other kinds of intelligence.
Full capabilities of using principles of logic unfold gradually, throughout early adolescence (approximately ages 12 to 15). • But not everyone achieves formal operational skills (some studies estimate that 25 percent — 50 % of college students do not). • Social values/ culture also influence the achievement of these skills • Isolation, level of formal education, level of scientific sophistication in the community
Information Processing Approaches to Cognitive Development, continued • Information Processing Perspectives assert that one of the key reasons that mental abilities advance during adolescence is the growth of metacognition • The growth of METACOGNITION, the ability to think about one's own thinking process and their ability to monitor their cognition.
Egocentrism in Adolescent Thinking Developmental Psychologist David Elkind argues that the adolescent period fosters adolescent egocentrism • ADOLESCENT EGOCENTRISM is a stage of self-absorption where the world is seen only from one's own perspective. • Thus adolescents are highly critical of authority figures, unwilling to accept criticism, and quick to find fault with others. • Adolescent egocentrism helps explain why teens often think they’re the focus of everyone’s attention!
Adolescent egocentrism leads to 2 distortions: • IMAGINARY AUDIENCE, where adolescents think they are the focus of everyone else's attention. • Constructing elaborate scenarios about other’s thoughts/intentions • PERSONAL FABLES, the belief that the adolescent is unique and exceptional and shared by no one else • No one understands me • Risk taking behavior
Adolescent Stage: • More complex thinking process - abstract thinking • Reasoning ability based on available principles • Can compare and debate issues • Able to think the process of thinking • Thinking ability of a child and adolescent/ adult differs more complex.
Cognitive changes in adolescent. • Systematic thinking ability • Cognitive changes gradually • Development towards formal operation differs for different individual their perceptions towards the world around them is different. • Issues related to emotions can hinder adolescent to think complex issues. • Implication can be +ve or –ve
Indicator influencing adolescent cognitive development: Early adol. • More complex thinking focused more on personal decision making (relates to home and school environment), such as: • Home/school work • Questions rules, authority, standard in society • Giving opinion towards certain topic of interest that relates to their everyday chores/living • Best sports/games? • Good looking? • Change rules ?
Indicator influencing adolescent cognitive development: Middle adol. • Thinking process increases and more developed covers issues related to philosophy and the future: • Questions asked are more advanced • Analysis ability better • Think and form own code of thinking (what’s right?)
Indicator influencing adolescent cognitive development: Middle adol. • Thinking of other alternatives and form own identity (Who am I?) • More systematic thinking style consider their goals in life (What do I want?) • Think about the future long term planning. • Thinking ability are more systematic influence behavior towards others.
Indicator influencing adolescent cognitive development: Late adol. • More complex thinking process focused on personal decision making but less self-centred. Issues such as:- • Global / advance issues (justice, history, politics & patriotism) • Form own ideas about certain topics/issues. • Like to debate. • Thinking more geared towards career development. • Started thinking about their role in society.
Factors influencing health cognitive development: • Involve them in discussions. • Encourage them to share ideas and opinions. • Help them to set their goals. • Encourage them to think of future possibilities. • Encourage and praise where appropriate. • Assist them in making decision.
How cognitive development during adolescent can influence parent-child relationship? • Changes during adolescent (Physical, social, mental) impact on their lives • Social • Physical • Thinking process • Consequent Adolescent – Parents Conflict
Disagreement Topics • Galambos • Responsibilities, • Duties / house chores • Pocket money, dating • Friends • appearance • Barber • Families, • School • Curfews • Dating • Peers • Sexual behavior • Tubman Conflict must occur as a part of normal adolescent development.
Reasons for Parents-child conflict • Individuation period adolescent set own identity different from parents. • De-idealization Adolescent are now aware that parents are not always right/perfect (started to think what’s logic and what’s not). • Advance in reasoning abstract and logical thinking ability reasoning ability. • Are more interested in the concept of JUSTICE, RIGHTS, EQUILITY. (Thus can think and questions rules set by parents)
Conclusion • Even though conflicts always occurs but its not harmful will not threaten parents-child relationship. • In fact, conflict during adolescent is “simply a part of becoming an adult”. • Light (1990) studies showed, some adolescent do • Admire their parents. • Discuss problems with parents. • Seek advise and opinion from parents • Love and feel loved by their parents • Feel treasured and respected by parents.
School Performance in the Adolescent Years • While cognitive abilities increase, school performance tends to decline. • Reasons not completely clear—more strict grading? • There is a strong relationship between educational achievement and socioeconomic status (SES) • Poorer children have fewer resources, lower health, more inadequate schools, and less involved parents.
The U.S. had high graduation rates, but those rates are dropping compared to other industrialized nations. The reasons for the drop in U.S. rates are likely related to a combination of factors, including the growing diversity of U.S. schools. High School Graduation Rates
There are ethnic and racial differences in school achievement but the reason for them is not clear. • In general, African-American and Hispanic students perform at lower levels than Caucasians and Asians perform at higher levels. • When socioeconomic levels are taken into account, achievement differences diminish. • Additional success factors are the cultural value of school success, attributions of school success, and consequences for not doing well.