SSUSH4 The student will identify the ideological, military, and diplomatic aspects of the American Revolution. a. Explain the language, organization, and intellectual sources of the Declaration of Independence; include the writing of John Locke and Montesquieu, and the role of Thomas Jefferson.
Declaration of Independence The document’s ideas can be traced to several philosophies: • John Locke -believed people were born with certain natural rights (life, liberty and property) -that the people and the government have a “contract” -people had the right to overthrow a government if it did not uphold its end of the contract
Declaration of Independence • Montesquieu -French philosopher -Wrote of three types of political power (executive, legislative, and judicial) -Separation of power and checks and balances
Declaration of Independence • Originally written by Thomas Jefferson in June 1776, he borrowed the ideas of Locke and Montesquieu. • The document was edited several times prior to it’s presentation to the Congress. Benjamin Franklin and John Adams editing Thomas Jefferson’s original writing of the Declaration of Independence
Made up of 5 parts • The Preamble which explains the purpose of the document • Declaration of Natural Rights which is taken almost directly from Locke (Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness) • List of Grievances which list the colonists’ complaints against Britain • Resolution of Independence which declares that the colonies are free from Britain • Signersdeclared that they, as representatives of the colonies approved the document Declaration of Independence
The signing of the Declaration of Independence signaled the beginning of the American Revolutionary War. Declaration of Independence
b. Explain the reason for and significance of the French alliance and foreign assistance and the roles of Benjamin Franklin and the Marquis de Lafayette.
The French, old enemies of Britain, began to secretly send supplies to the Americans. • Benjamin Franklin is sent to France in 1776 to try and persuade the French to enter the war. He stayed in France until 1785. • The Americans wanted France to send troops as well, but France wanted an impressive American victory before declaring war on Britain. France enters the war
France enters the war • The early war effort goes poorly for the Americans as they lose several key battles. • In 1777, George Washington and the Continental Army take up winter quarters at Valley Forge (PA). • Nearly 2,500 troops die from exposure to the cold and food shortages. • The Marquis de Lafayette from France, helped to hold the remaining troops together through training and discipline.
France enters the war • In October 1777, the Americans defeated the British at Saratoga, NY. This American victory was a turning point in the war because it boosted American moral and brought France into the war against Britain.