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Subjects. Experimental Control Total Total Subjects 22 17 39 Gender Males 8 7 24 Females 14 10 15. Subjects. Experimental Control Total Class Level Freshmen 5 9 14 Sophomore 5 1 6

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subjects
Subjects

Experimental Control Total

Total Subjects 22 17 39

Gender

Males 8 7 24

Females 14 10 15

subjects2
Subjects

ExperimentalControlTotal

Class Level

Freshmen 5 9 14

Sophomore 5 1 6

Junior 6 4 10

Senior 6 3 9

subjects3
Subjects

Experimental Control Total

Ethnic Background

Caucasian 0 0 0

African-American 15 13 28

“Other” 7 4 11

results
Results

Mean Test Scores

Group Pre-Test Post-Test

Experimental 5.73±3.34* 14.45±4.8**

Control 8.18±3.82 7.82±4.6***

results5
Results

27

Experimental

24

Control

21

18

15

14.5

Mean Correct Responses

12

9

8.2

7.8

6

5.7

3

0

Pre-Test

Post-Test

gender results
Gender Results

27

Experimental

24

Control

21

$+

18

16.0*

15

Mean correct responses

+

11.75*

12

8.9

7.14

7.85

7.8

9

6.13

5.5

6

3

0

Male Pre-

Male Post-

Female Pre-

Female Post-

class level results
Class Level Results

27

Pre-Test

24

Post-Test

21

+

16.3*

+

15.6*

18

+

13.5*

+

12.2*

15

ean correct responses

12

8.2

7.5

9

2.8**

$

3.6

6

3

M

0

9th

10th

11th

12th

Experimental Group

class level results8
Class Level Results

27

Pre-Test

24

Post-Test

21

18

13.0

15

12.0

Mean correct responses

9.7

12

8.7

8.3

6.8

6.0

9

5.0

6

3

0

9th

10th

11th

12th

Control Group

specific category responses
Specific Category Responses
  • Protein supplements and muscle development (e.g., protein shakes and amino acids)

#a %correct %incorrect

Pre-Test 6 33.9 65.9

Post-Test 6 64.4 35.7

Improvement + 30.5

a= number of questions on questionnaire in particular category

specific category responses10
Specific Category Responses
  • Vitamin and mineral supplements

#a %correct %incorrect

Pre-Test 6 16.3 80.3

Post-Test 6 48.5 51.7

Improvement + 32.2

a= number of questions on questionnaire in particular category

specific category responses11
Specific Category Responses
  • Formula drinks (e.g., carbohydrate loading, fluid replacement and medium chain triglyceride [MCT] solutions)

#a %correct %incorrect

Pre-Test 3 12.1 87.9

Post-Test 3 53.0 47.3

Improvement + 40.9

a = number of questions on questionnaire in particular category

specific category responses12
Specific Category Responses
  • Steroid-alternative supplements (e.g., creatine monohydrate, androstenedione, beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate [HMB], dehydroepiandrosterone [DHEA])

#a %correct %incorrect

Pre-Test 8 18.7 81.2

Post-Test 8 48.3 52.1

Improvement + 29.6

a= number of questions on questionnaire in particular category

specific category responses13
Specific Category Responses
  • Weight-loss supplements (e.g., ephedras, chromium picolinate)

#a %correct %incorrect

Pre-Test 4 18.2 81.8

Post-Test 4 46.6 53.4

Improvement + 28.4

a= number of questions on questionnaire in particular category

specific category responses14
Specific Category Responses
  • Sport supplement safety

#a %correct %incorrect

Pre-Test 1 36.4 63.6

Post-Test 1 77.2 22.7

Improvement + 40.8

a= number of questions on questionnaire in particular category

dietary supplement use
Dietary Supplement Use

Experimental Group (n = 22)

  • Vitamin C (23%)
  • Multivitamins (9%)
  • Minerals
    • Iron (9%)
  • Protein (14%)

*Note: results based on subjective responses

dietary supplement use16
Dietary Supplement Use

Control Group (n = 17)

  • Vitamin C (18%)
  • Minerals
    • Calcium (23%)
    • Iron (18%)
  • Non-vitamin/non-mineral
    • beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB)

*Note: results based on subjective responses

discussion
Discussion
  • Results for control and experimental groups were low at pre-test and consistent with previous findings
  • Whether the scores were a result of SES can only be speculated
discussion18
Discussion
  • Pre-test low scores may have been attributed to
    • Questions being to difficult to understand (in particular the updated 7 questions)
    • Subjects in this population possessing an even greater lack of basic nutrition knowledge
discussion19
Discussion
  • Because participation was voluntary, there was no way to assure that subjects would make honest attempts to correctly answer the questions
discussion20
Discussion
  • Significant differences at pre-test
    • Experimental group had a significantly lower score at pre-test (p =0.040)
    • May have allotted for greater improvement by experimental group
    • Possibly a result of inability to randomize the sample population
summary
Summary
  • Effect of sport supplement intervention
    • Five sessions of nutrition and sport supplement education intervention were effective in improving sport supplement knowledge in adolescents from a low-income community
    • Consistent with finding from Hartman et al. (1997) in adults from low-income communities
summary22
Summary
  • Gender differences (Experimental group)
    • Present study indicated no significant difference between gender at pre-test
      • The improvement at post-test was greater in females than males
    • Finding does not agree with Massad et al. (1995) and Krowchuk et al. (1989)
summary23
Summary
  • Class level differences (Experimental group)
    • At pre-test
      • Freshmen scores lower than seniors’
      • Sophomores’ scores significantly lower than juniors’ and seniors’
    • At post-test
      • No significant differences in scores among class levels
summary24
Summary

Dietary supplement use

  • Most consumed vitamin/mineral supplements
    • vitamin C
    • iron
    • calcium
  • Consistent with Kim & Keen (1999) and Lino et al. (1999)
limitations
Limitations

Sample Size

  • Limited number of subjects available at NSA
  • Finding a willing school to participate

that fit the grant criteria

    • Time restraints
limitations26
Limitations

Confounding error

  • School fire
    • Considerable subject maneuvering
    • Loss of subjects (control group)
    • Possible interaction between groups
limitations27
Limitations

Questionnaire Limitations

  • Complicated terminology may have hindered the experimental group’s ability to understand certain issues
  • Subject participation was optional and the investigator was unable to control attendance to educational lessons by the experimental group
limitations28
Limitations

Questionnaire Limitations

  • Assessing frequency of dietary supplement use
    • Results based on subjective responses
    • Likert-type point value system
    • Difficulty in ascertaining frequency of use
limitations29
Limitations

Sources of Nutrition Information

  • Prior studies have assessed this information in adolescents from communities of higher income
  • Present study would have provided suitable comparison for individuals of low-income
conclusion
Conclusion
  • A short-term nutrition education program can significantly improve sport supplement knowledge in high school students from a low-income community
  • Future research is needed to assess long-term effects of nutrition education in low-income communities
    • Use of more objective measures are also required
generalizability
Generalizability
  • Assuming internal consistency, results may be generalized to other high school adolescents in low-income communities
future research implications
Future Research Implications
  • Possibility for future research in this needed area is evident
  • Similar investigation in progress
  • Incorporating current material into other high school in low-income communities