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HEENT Illustrations. Retina and Tympanic Membrane Slides are Presented with Permission From Welch Allyn, Inc. HEENT Illustrations. Eye & Ear colored pictures with permission from Welch Allyn, Inc. (more examples on reference CD-ROM)

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HEENT Illustrations

Retina and Tympanic Membrane Slides are Presented with Permission From Welch Allyn, Inc.


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HEENT Illustrations

  • Eye & Ear colored pictures with permission from Welch Allyn, Inc.(more examples on reference CD-ROM)

  • Mouth diagrams adapted from “MediClip: The Complete Medical Art Library,” CD-ROM from Williams & Wilkins



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Lacrimal Apparatus

  • Tears flow from

  • Lacrimal gland to

  • Nasolacrimal duct


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Eye: Aqueous Humor & Venous Drainage

  • 1 Cornea

  • 2 Anterior Chamber

  • 3 Canal of Schlemm

  • 4 Ciliary Body

  • 5 Iris

  • 6 Lens

  • 7 Posterior Chamber

  • 8 Venous Drainage


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Depth of Anterior Chamber

  • Shine light across cornea & anterior chamber

  • Normal depth shows no shadow

  • A crescent shadow on opposite side indicates shallow anterior chamber & possible narrow angle glaucoma


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  • Eye Anatomy

  • Diopter focus

  • 0 diopter lens (retina)

  • +lens (anterior)

  • -lens (posterior)


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Refraction

  • Normal eye: focus is on retina: Use O Diopter, or straight lens

  • Myopia (nearsightedness): eye globe is long: focus is in front of retina: use - lens (concave lens) to compensate


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Refraction

  • Hyperopia (farsightedness): eye globe is short: focus is behind retina: use + lens (convex) to compensate

  • Astigmatism: focus is variable & irregular


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Systematic Assessment of Retina

  • Optic disk diameter 1.5 mm, with cup-to-disk ratio from 0.1 - 0.5

  • Macula (size of disk), avascular with darker, depressed center (fovea)

  • Vessel: arteries brighter & thinner than veins, with diameter ratio of 2:3

  • Inspect superior, inferior, temporal & nasal quadrants











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Geographic Tongue

  • Benign variation of smooth tongue & raised papillae

  • Map like appearance

  • See text for photo


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Hair Tongue

  • Black hairy tongue

  • Elongated, darkened papillae

  • Often due to staining, infection or antibiotic treatment

  • Benign

  • See text for photo


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Lichen Planus

  • Benign, painless, white, lace-like eruptions

  • Bilateral on buccal mucosa

  • See text for photo


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Leukoplakia

  • Precancerous, white plaques on buccal mucosa, gingivae or tongue

  • Hairy leukoplakia of tongue associated with HIV

  • See text for photo


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Sinus Locations

  • 1. Frontal

  • 2. Ethmoid

  • 3. Maxillary

  • Sphenoid lies behind

  • Ethmoid


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Non-allergic Rhinitis

  • Nasal mucosa & lateral turbinates are erythematous with drainage


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Allergic Rhinitis

  • Nasal mucosa & lateral turbinates are edematous & pale with watery drainage


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Nasal Polyps

  • Nasal mucosa develops bulging sacs


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Lymph Node Groups: Neck Area

  • 1. Pre-auricular

  • 2. Post-auricular

  • 3. Occipital

  • 4. Tonsillar

  • 5. Submaxillary

  • 6. Submental

  • 7. Superficial cervical (deep certical under sternocleidomastoid muscle)

  • 8. Posterior cervical

  • 9. Supraclavicular

  • 10. Infraclavicular


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Thyroid

  • 1. Larynx & Thyroid Cartilage

  • 2. Trachea

  • 3. Thyroid lateral lobes

  • 4. Isthmus

  • 5. Sternocleidomastoid muscle