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1、动词to be Iam a student. You are a student. He\Sheis a student. We are students. You arestudents. They are students.
否定句: I amnot(I’m not)a student. You arenot (You aren’t)a student. He\Sheis not(isn’t) a student. We arenot(aren’t) students. You are notstudents. They are not students.
一般疑问句: Areyou a student? Yes, I am.\No, I am not. Is he a student? Yes, he is.\No, he is not. Are you students? Yes, we are.\No, we are not. Are they students? Yes, they are.\No, they are not.
特殊疑问句： What is your name? My name is George. Where are you from? I am from Ningbo. How old are you? I am 26 years old.
缩略形式： I’m a student. He’s a teacher. They’re workers. We’re friends.
2、不定冠词a\an I ama manager\teacher\student\worker. I am an accountant\engineer\editor.
不定冠词的基本用法 不定冠词主要用在可数名词单数前，表示： 1）“一个” Rome was not built in a day. I can only carry two at a time. She is a friend of mine. 2）“某一个”（=a certain） A car is waiting at the gate. He was born in a small city in Zhejiang.
3、与work连用的介词 work for, work at, work in, work with I work with Mary in the same office. I work for a bank. I work at a school. I work in Ningbo.
I am David. You work in London. He\She is from China. We are teachers. They are my parents. It is my dog.
My name is David. Your job is in London. His\Her parents are from Italy. Our house is very large. Their parents live in a little village. Its name is Mary.
5、在名词后加-’s表示所属关系 Sally’s friend is Greek. John’s father is Italian. Mary’s son is 10 years old.
6、规则动词（-s词尾的加法）: 1）在一般现在时中，主语为第三人称单数时，谓语需加-s, 如： She loves children. 她爱孩子。 This surprises us. 这让我们感到震惊。
2）在加-s词尾时要注意下面几点： a. 在一般情况下可直接加-s work---works like---likes come---comes feel---feels b. 以ch, sh, s, x, o结尾的词，需加-es: teach---teaches wash---washes wish---wishes miss---misses fix---fixes do---does go---goes c. 以辅音+y结尾的词，先变y为i, 再加-es: cry---cries apply---applies fly---flies reply---replies
7、名词的单复数 1）一般名词的复数以加-s或-es的方式构成： 一般情况加-s:brothers flowers schools books 以s, x, ch, sh结尾的词加-es:buses foxes watches dishes 以辅音+y结尾的词变y为i再加-es:ladies countries
2）以o结尾的词： a. 加-es: Negroes heroes potatoes tomatoes b. 加-s: 以元音+o, oo结尾的词 zoos bamboos taboos 一些外来词 pianos solos tobaccos 一些缩写词 kilos photos memos
3）以-f或-fe结尾的词，通常变f为v, 再加-(e)s: half---halves leaf---leaves self---selves thief—thieves wolf---wolves shelf---shelves wife---wives knife---knives life---lives 有些只加-s, roofs proofs beliefs chiefs
4）不规则的复数形式 man---men woman---women child---children tooth---teeth foot---feet goose---geese mouse---mice ox---oxen
5）单复数同形 sheep goldfish deer Chinese means works(工厂)
6）特殊情况: hairs: He had a few white hairs. fruits: There the most common fruits are pear, apple and peach. fishes: He caught three little fishes.
8、动词like的用法 表示喜欢做某事，结构为like+doing： I like playing the piano. He likes watching TV. They like eating banana.
9、需重点记忆的课后单词 nation—national My nationality is Chinese. I work for an IT company\a bank. I am a deputy manager. My wife is a secretary\an accountant. I live in a little town. My parents’ job is engineer. My landlord is the owner of the restaurant. He is graduated from a local university.
1、行为动词的否定形式 行为动词的否定式由do not(don’t), does not(doesn’t)+动词原形构成： I like swimming. I do not like swimming. You like running. You do not like running. He\She likes reading. He\She does not like reading. 在口语中通常用缩略形式don’t\doesn’t, 在正式的文体中不用缩略形式。
2、行为动词疑问句的构成及其简略回答 行为动词作谓语的一般疑问句需用助动词do\does,并将其置于主语之前。通常只需要简略回答，用do\does代替句中的行为动词。 Do you like swimming? Yes, I do.\No, I don’t. Does he live in this city? Yes, he does.\No, he doesn’t. 特殊疑问句要将疑问词置于句首 Where do you have lunch? I have lunch… What time do you go to school? When do you have dinner?
3、频度副词 1) 常见的频度副词从0%----100%排列： never sometimes often usually always 2) 频度副词在句子中有不同的位置： 在动词to be之后： He is always at home in the evening.他晚上总在家。 She is often late.她经常迟到。 Are you usually ill on planes?你经常晕机吗？ 在实意动词之前： They sometimes stay up all night.他们有时彻夜不眠。 She never saw him again.她再也没有见过他。 I usually go to bed at eleven.我通常十一点睡觉。
在助动词之后（have, do），实意动词之前： I haveoften thought of you. Do you usually go to school by foot? Have you ever ridden a bike? 有时为了强调，可放在句首或助动词及动词to be之前： Always, we went on foot. 我们总是步行去。 We usually don’t get up until nine on Sundays.星期天我们通常九点才起床。 He always is late when we have an important meeting.我们有重要会议时，他总是迟到。
4、动词to have的不同含义 1）to possess(characteristics) 具有（特点） I have black hair. He has a cut on his chin(下巴). 2）to possess(things) 拥有（东西） He has a large house. Do you have any pets? 3）to eat\to drink吃、喝 We have coffee at 11. I usually have a sandwich for lunch.
5、动词to have, to go, to finish第三人称单数形式的变化： I have I go I finish youhave you goyoufinish he\she\ithashe\she\it goeshe\she\itfinishes we\they havewe\theygowe\theyfinish
6、12小时表达法 ①表示整点过1—30分用past（晚于，过）： 12:10 It is ten past twelve. 9:05 It is five past nine. ②表示离整点还差1—29分用to(在……之前) 10:50 It is ten to eleven. ③表示“一刻钟”可用a quarter 11:15 It is a quarter past eleven. 8:45 It is a quarter to nine.
④表示“半小时”常用half: 6:30 It is half past six. ⑤表示“午前”用am, 表示“午后”用pm, 表示“在中午”用at noon: I often go to school at 8am. I always go home at 5pm. I usually go out for a walk at noon.
7、介词at, for, in, from…to… at 表示在某点时间（在…时刻） She arrives at 7 o’clock. I have tea\coffee at breakfast time (lunchtime, dinnertime). Note: at night, at noon for表示在某段时间（或作为…） I go swimming on Tuesdays for two hours. She likes apple for breakfast (lunch, dinner). in表示在…期间in the afternoon(evening), in +年，月in March，季节in spring(summer, autumn, winter) I work in the morning. from…to…表示从某点到另一点的持续时间 He works from 8am to 5pm. On具体某一天
8、提出请求 Could you+ do sth?常用于表达请求。 Could you spell your name, please? Yes, of course. Could you tell me your telephone number, please? No, sorry… Could you call me at 7o’clock, please? Certainly.
9、表达建议 Would you like sth?或者would you like to do sth? 常用来表达建议。 Would you like to have a coffee? Yes, please. Would you like a cup of coffee? No, thank you. What about/How about doing sth? Why not do sth. ? Let’s do sth.
10、需重点记忆的单词 I’m pleased (glad,nice) to meet you. I never feel relaxed on planes (on a plane). I really enjoy (like) flying. I usually take a nap at home. start—finish by train/bus/plane/ship/boat /subway/highway/sea/air/road-----on foot I have a reservation for a single\double room? Could you sign the register, please?
1、介绍他人 常用的表达方法是This is… , my… Xiaoyan, this is Polly, my girlfriend. Polly, this is Xiaoyan,my colleague from Shanghai.
2、提议与应答 可以用Would you like sth?或Would you like to do sth?这两种疑问方式表达建议，例如： Would you like a drink? / some crisps? Would you like to come to the shop one day? 肯定回答 否定回答 Yes, please. No, thanks.\thank you. Yes, I would, thanks. No, I wouldn’t, thanks.
提议还可以用以what 开头的疑问句表达，例如： 提议 What would you like to drink? 应答I’d like a gin and tonic, please. What would you like, Polly? I’d like a glass of wine, thank you. I’d like some crisps. 主动提出自己做某事，常用I’ll (I will) +动词原形，如： I’ll buy the drinks. I’ll buy the book for you on my way home.
3、序数词 多数序数词由基数词直接加-th构成，如： six---sixth eleven---eleventh eighteen---eighteenth hundred---hundredth 以下词例外： first second third fifth eighth ninth twelfth twentieth thirtieth fortieth 简写形式，如： first 1st second 2nd third 3rd fourth 4th
4、不定冠词a/an和定冠词the的区别 不定冠词a/an与可数名词的单数搭配，指某一类人或事物中的非特指的“任何一个”。定冠词the与可数名词的单、复数和不可数名词搭配，指独一无二的事务或已被提到的人或物。例如： I am an accountant. 我是一名会计。 I am the Chief Accountant for ABHK Bank. 我是ABHK银行主任会计师。 These are the books I like.这些是我喜欢的书。 She is a receptionist. 她是一名接待员。 She is the receptionist. 她是接待员。 注：表达楼层时用定冠词the ground floor the first floor the second floor
5、指示代词this, these, that, those this, that是单数形式，these, those是复数形式。 通常this(these)指离说话人较近的物品，that(those)指离说话人家较远的物品。指示代词既可以单独使用，也可以与名词连用。例如： Xiaoyan, this is Polly, my girlfriend. These people are my friends. That is Frank near the door. Those people in the car are his brothers and sisters.
指示代词可以用于表达对比的意义。（说话是伴随用手指点的动作。） This is my coffee and that’s yours. These are my books. Those are yours. These people are my friends. Those are my husband’s friends. 指示代词可用于强调。例如： That is really stupid! Those are no good at all. I really don’t like this!
6、there is\there are句型的使用 表示“在某处有/存在……”可以用there is/there are…结构。如果名词为复数，动词用are, 名词为单数，动词用is, 例如： There is a man in the office. There are two plants in the house. 疑问句要将is\are置于句首（Is there…?\Are there…?）, 例如： Is there a fax in the office? Are there any plants in the reception?