punctuating lead ins quotes and citations
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Punctuating lead-ins, quotes, and citations. . Punctuating Quotes. When you quote another writer's words, it's best to introduce the quote with a lead-in and finish with a citation.

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punctuating quotes
Punctuating Quotes

When you quote another writer's words, it's best to introduce the quote with a lead-in and finish with a citation.

  • You can use a full sentence followed by a colon to introduce a quotation.Ex. The setting emphasizes deception: "Nothing is as it appears" (Smith 1).
  • Use a descriptive verb, followed by a comma. Avoid overusing says.Examples: Smith states, "This book is terrific" (102). Smith remarks, " . . . Smith writes, " . . . Smith notes, " . . . Smith comments, " . . .
punctuating quotes cont
Punctuating Quotes cont.
  • You can also begin a sentence with your own words, then complete it with quoted words.Ex. Hamlet's task is to avenge a "foul and most unnatural murder" (Shakespeare 925).
  • If your lead-in to the quotation ends in that or as, don't follow it with a comma.The first letter of the quotation should be lower case. Examples: Smith points out that "millions of students would like to burn this book" (53).
punctuating quotes1
Punctuating Quotes
  • The period should go after the citation.

Ex. While in the Underworld, Agamemnon tells Odysseus, “you will not be murdered by your wife, Odysseus. She is full of intelligence, and her heart is sound, your prudent and modest Penelopeia” (Homer 144).

  • If the quote is a questions or exclamation, include the end punctuation within the quotation marks, follow with the citation, and then end with a period.

Ex. In Homer’s The Odyssey, Odysseus, concerned about his wife Penelopeia, asks his mother, “Does she remain with the boy and keep all safe, or has she already married the best man who offered?” (137).