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MATTER AND TEMPERATURE - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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MATTER AND TEMPERATURE. Chapter Ten: Matter and Temperature. 10.1 The Nature of Matter 10.2 Temperature 10.3 The Phases of Matter. Chapter 10.1 Learning Goals. Define matter. Identify the atom as the building block of matter.

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chapter ten matter and temperature
Chapter Ten: Matter andTemperature
  • 10.1 The Nature of Matter
  • 10.2 Temperature
  • 10.3 The Phases of Matter
chapter 10 1 learning goals
Chapter 10.1 Learning Goals
  • Define matter.
  • Identify the atom as the building block of matter.
  • Explain the basis for classifying matter as either pure substances or mixtures.
investigation 10a
Key Question:

Is the matter a pure substance or is it a mixture?

Investigation 10A

Pure Substance or Mixture

10 1 the nature of matter
10.1 The Nature of Matter
  • Matteris a term used to describe anything that has mass and takes up space.
  • Greek philosophers Democritus and Leucippus proposed that matter is made of tiny particles called atoms.
  • Atoms were an idea that few believed.
  • The first evidence was called Brownian motion for Robert Brown, who first noticed the jerky motion of tiny particles.
10 1 the nature of matter1
10.1 The Nature of Matter
  • Throwing marbles at a tire tube moves the tube smoothly.
  • Throwing the same marbles at a foam cup moves the cup in a jerky way, like Brownian motion.
  • Varying the mass and size of particles that collide can have different effects.
10 1 elements
10.1 Elements
  • An element is a pure substance that cannot be broken down into other substance by chemical or physical means.
  • All of the matter you are ever likely to experience is made from one or more elements in nature.
10 1 elements1
10.1 Elements
  • For example, water can be broken down into its elements, hydrogen and oxygen, when energy is added.
10 1 atoms
10.1 Atoms
  • A single atom is the smallest particle that retains the chemical identity of the element.
10 1 atoms1
10.1 Atoms
  • Carbon atoms are different from sodium, aluminum, or oxygen atoms.
  • They have different masses.
10 1 compounds and elements
10.1 Compounds and elements
  • Compounds are two or more different elements chemically bonded together.
10 1 examples of compounds
10.1 Examples of compounds
  • Compounds contain more than one type of atom chemically joined together.
10 1 molecules
10.1 Molecules
  • A molecule is a group of two or more atoms joined together chemically.
10 1 mixtures
10.1 Mixtures
  • Many substances you encounter are a mixtureof different elements and compounds.

How many atoms are in this mixture?

How many molecules are in this mixture?

10 1 elements compounds and mixtures
10.1 Elements, compounds, and mixtures

Can you distinguish between atoms and molecules in these images?

10 2 temperature
10.2 Temperature
  • There are two common temperature scales.
  • On the Fahrenheit scale, water freezes at 32 degrees and boils at 212 degrees.
  • The Celsius scale divides the interval between the freezing and boiling points of water into 100 degrees.
10 2 what temperature really is
10.2 What temperature really is
  • Atoms are in constant motion, even in a solid object.
  • The back-and-forth jiggling of atoms is caused by thermal energy, which is a kind of kinetic energy.
10 2 what temperature really is1
10.2 What temperature really is
  • Temperature measures the kinetic energy per molecule due to random motion.
10 2 converting to kelvin
10.2 Converting to Kelvin
  • The Kelvin temperature scale is useful in science because it starts at absolute zero.
  • To convert from Celsius to Kelvin, you add 273 to the temperature in Celsius.
10 3 phases of matter
10.3 Phases of Matter
  • On Earth, pure substances are usually found as solids, liquids, or gases.
  • These are called phases of matter.
10 3 the phases of matter
10.3 The phases of matter
  • A solid holds its shape and does not flow.
  • The molecules in a solid vibrate in place, but on average, don’t move far from their places.
10 3 the phases of matter1
10.3 The phases of matter
  • A liquid holds its volume, but does not hold its shape—it flows.
  • Liquids flow because the molecules can move around.
10 3 the phases of matter2
10.3 The phases of matter
  • A gas flows like a liquid, but can also expand or contract to fill a container.
  • A gas does not hold its volume.
  • The molecules in a gas have enough energy to completely break away from each other.
10 3 intermolecular forces1
10.3 Intermolecular forces
  • Within all matter, there is a constant competition between temperature and intermolecular forces.
  • When temperature wins the competition, molecules fly apart and you have a gas.
  • When intermolecular forces win the competition, molecules clump tightly together and you have a solid.
10 3 melting and boiling
10.3 Melting and boiling
  • The melting point is the temperature at which a substance changes from a solid to a liquid.
10 3 melting and boiling1
10.3 Melting and boiling
  • The temperature at which a liquid becomes a gas is called the boiling point.
10 3 melting and boiling points of common substances
10.3 Melting and boiling points ofcommon substances
  • Materials have a wide range of melting and boiling points.
10 3 sublimation
10.3 Sublimation
  • Sometimes a solid can change directly to a gas when heat energy is added.
  • This process is called sublimation.
10 3 plasma
10.3 Plasma
  • In the plasma phase, matter becomes ionized as electrons are broken loose from atoms.
  • The Sun is made of plasma, as is most of the universe, including the Orion nebula.