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The Canadian Council of Professional Engineers

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  1. The Canadian Council of Professional Engineers Providing leadership which advances the quality of life through the creative, responsible and progressive application of engineering principles in a global context

  2. Today’s Presentation • The engineering profession in Canada • Accreditation and Software Engineering • National Guidelines for Licencing • One province’s experiences

  3. Presenters • Digvir Jayas, P.Eng. • Chair, Canadian Engineering Qualifications Committee and Associate Vice-President (Research) at the University of Manitoba • Gillian Pichler, P.Eng. • Director, Registration at the Association of Professional Engineers and Geoscientists of British Columbia (APEGBC) • Pieter Botman, P.Eng. • Volunteer with APEGBC and independent consultant • Deborah Wolfe, P.Eng. • Director, Education, Outreach and Research at the Canadian Council of Professional Engineers

  4. Engineering in Canada • There are 160,000 registered professional engineers in Canada • Canada’s system for the formation of an engineer is world renowned • Canada is the 3rd largest exporter of engineering services in the world

  5. A Self-governing Profession • Section 92 (13) of the Constitution Act, 1867, places professions under provincial and territorial jurisdiction. • Delegation to professions - self-governance • Licencing, discipline and enforcement • Associations/ordre formed to protect the public and govern the profession • Legislative framework established • No industrial exemption: all those practising engineerng must be registered

  6. The practice of Professional engineering means any act of planning, designing, composing, evaluating, advising, reporting, directing or supervising, or managing any of the forgoing, that requires the application of engineering principles, and that concerns the safeguarding of life, health, property, economic interests, the public welfare or the environment. The Practice of Engineering(CCPE Definition)

  7. federation of 12 provincial and territorial associations, representing more than 160,000 professional engineers represents the profession at the national and international levels accredits university engineering educational programs prepares national criteria and guidelines Canadian Council of Professional Engineers

  8. under the Federal Trade-marks Act, the CCPE is the owner of the official marks “engineer,” “professional engineer” and “engineering” the CCPE has the right and duty to protect the public from the misuse of the words “engineer” and “engineering” CCPE, continued . . .

  9. CCPE Structure • Board of Directors • Standing Committees • Canadian Engineering Accreditation Board • Canadian Engineering Qualifications Board • Canadian Engineering Resources Board • Canadian Engineering International Board

  10. Canadian Engineering Accreditation Board • 1965 - CEAB established. In 2002, 220 programs in 35 engineering schools accredited (including three software engineering programs). • Objective: To ensure Canadian engineering education programs meet or exceed standards acceptable for professional registration/licensure in the Canadian provinces and territories. • Purpose of Accreditation: to identify those engineering programs that meet the criteria for accreditation.

  11. applies to bachelor degree programs program must include engineering in the title all options and electives are examined CEAB curriculum content must be met by all students (minimum path) faculty teaching courses which are primarily engineering science and engineering design are expected to be professional engineers in Canada General Considerations

  12. creditability for program graduates meet academic requirements for professional registration international recognition of engineering credentials uniform quality of engineering programs fosters self examination and continuous improvement improvement or elimination of engineeringprograms which do not meet standards Benefits of Accreditation

  13. Criteria For Accreditation • Quantitative and Qualitative evaluation • Accredited engineering programs must contain not only mathematics, sciences and engineering content requirements, but they must also develop communication skills and an understanding of the environmental, cultural, economic and social impacts of engineering on society and the concept of sustainable development

  14. Accreditation of Software Engineering Programs • CEAB criteria are non-discipline specific • CEAB developed a sample software engineering program that met criteria • Held a workshop for all team chairs and software engineering program visitors in year of first visits (Fall 2000) • Each software engineering program includedtwo visitors; one from industry and one from academia • Consistency report following decisions

  15. Undergraduate Degrees Offered: University of Ottawa Example Undergraduate Studies Program Titles • Chemical EngineeringEnvironmental Engineering OptionEngineering Management And Entrepreneurship OptionCombined Program In Chemical Engineering/computing TechnologyCombined Biochemistry / Chemical Engineering Program In BiotechnologyCivil EngineeringEnvironmental / Water Resources OptionStructural And Geotechnical Engineering OptionEngineering Management And Entrepreneurship OptionCombined Program In Civil Engineering And Computing Technology

  16. Undergraduate Degrees Offered: Example Undergraduate Studies Program TitlesMechanical EngineeringCombined Program In Mechanical Engineering / Computing TechnologyEngineering Management And Entrepreneurship OptionSchool Of Information Technology And Engineering - Site-Computer EngineeringComputer ScienceElectrical EngineeringSoftware Engineering

  17. University of Ottawa Software Engineering Curriculum (Accredited) • The program prepares students for work on all types of software from real-time to business systems, with special emphasis on telecommunications software. The program also emphasizes communication and presentation skills, working in teams, management techniques and entrepreneurship. Students in the program work on industrially relevant software projects. They are taught how to use metrics to assess the quality of software and their own personal productivity. • The program was reviewed and will be mentored on a continuing basis by executives of leading software companies - members of the Industrial Advisory Board of SITE

  18. University of OttawaSE Program • First Year • Principles of Chemistry • Technical Report Writing • Engineering Mechanics • Fundamentals of Engineering Computation • Calculus I • Fundamentals of Software Design • Introduction to Electrical and Computer Engineering • Calculus II • Introduction to Linear Algebra • Fundamentals of Physics for Engineers • Physics Laboratory for Engineers

  19. University of OttawaSE Program • Second Year • Data Structures • Engineering Economics • Computer Architecture I • Logic for Computing • Software Design II • Three credits of electives 1 • Introduction to Business Management • File Management • Elements of Discrete Mathematics • Probability Statistics for Engineers • Software Design III • Three credits of electives 1

  20. University of OttawaSE Program • Third Year • Computer Architecture II • Design and Analysis of Algorithms I • Database Management Systems • Introduction to Telecommunications Systems and Services • Software Development for Large-Scale Systems • Three credits of electives 1 • Operating System Principles • Professional Software Engineering Practice 2 • Advanced Object Oriented Analysis and Design • Analysis and Design of User Interfaces • Telecommunications Software Engineering • Three credits of electives 1

  21. University of OttawaSE Program • Fourth Year • Security in Computing • Software Project Management • Software Engineering Project (first part) 3 • Nine credits of electives 1 • Real-Time Systems Design • Higher Layer Network Protocols • Software Quality Engineering • Software Engineering Project (second part) 3 • Six credits of electives 1

  22. National Guidelines for Licencing • Candidate Types: • CEAB grads • CEAB recognized grads (MRA and SE) • Non-CEAB recognized grads • Related-discipline grads

  23. Canadian Engineering Qualifications Board Mandate: • to provide guidelines for admission standards for the practice of engineering • to provide a syllabus for examinations for candidates other than CEAB graduates to ensure that they meet the educational requirements for licensure • to encourage the adoption of common standards for professional engineering registration in Canada • to act in a co-ordinating role on matters of professional practice

  24. CEQB • National guidelines on professional engineering qualifications • National guidelines on standards of practice, continuing competence and ethical conduct • Common Professional Practice Exam • Examination syllabus and list of international engineering institutions • Environmental practice and issues • Mobility agreement

  25. Requirements for licensure • Academic • Experience • Professional Practice Exam • Language • References

  26. Academic Assessment • CEAB accredited or recognized program • Confirmatory Program • Examination Program

  27. Experience Evaluation • application of theory • practical experience • management of engineering • communication skills • social implications of engineering

  28. Professional Practice Examination • 3 hour examination • Professionalism • Engineering Law

  29. Language • French in Quebec, French or English in New Brunswick, English in all other jurisdictions

  30. References • technical competence in the application of engineering principles and theory • ability to exercise professional judgment • ability to communicate effectively in the language of the jurisdiction • ability to work on a team • character

  31. Role of Associations • setting standards (academic, experience, references) for admission to the profession and issuing licences to those who qualify • enforcement activities for those practising engineering who are not licensed or those claiming to be engineers who are not licensed • investigation of complaints against Members

  32. Role of Associations, continued... • discipline activities against members who perform incompetently, breach the Code of ethics, code of conduct; • preparation of guidelines relating to various practice issues for the benefit of the public or the membership; • continuing competency programs

  33. History of Licencing in B.C. • 1998 – Chairman of leading aerospace company challenged APEGBC to recognize software engineering as ‘true engineering’ • Forum held with representatives from industry, academia, IEEE, CCPE, to explore issues and propose the way forward

  34. History of Licencing in B.C. • Issues Identified • Majority of practitioners are not professional engineers because: • Have engineering degrees, but do not feel that practice is ‘professional engineering’ • Have computer science or other degrees but have moved into engineering • Profession had failed to recognize software engineering as ‘true engineering’

  35. History of Licencing in B.C. • Issues Identified • Large sector of practitioners in ‘applied computer science’: software and hardware engineering • Designs affect public interest and safety • Many P.Eng. Practitioners registered through computer and electrical practice software engineering; however …

  36. History of Licencing in B.C. • Issues Identified • Failure of profession to recognize software engineering resulted in formation left to employers, learned societies, individuals • Marketplace does not recognize value of registering practitioners, qualified or not • Evolution resulted in lack or professional engineers as mentors, traditionally required for registration • Marketplace has strong support system of professional development and certification

  37. History of Licencing in B.C. • Issues Identified • Profession would need to make a major commitment to develop strategies that recognize that a community and practice had established, with certification bodies and infrastructure germane to its practitioners • Strategies would need strong support within the industry and present a value proposition to practitioners

  38. History of Licencing in B.C. • Task Force Established • Responsibilities: • Develop Qualification Process • Develop Profession’s Message to Industry and the Public • Partner with Local Firms, Industry Support Groups, and Industry to ensure full professional commitment to registered practitioners

  39. History of Licencing in B.C. • Task Force • Developed White Paper for publication on website for feedback from industry groups, current and potential members • Developed Qualifications Process including academic and experience requirements; • Received Council’s approval to establish Software Engineering as a discipline and established a pilot applications process in April 1999 (no application fee) • Advertising on web site, press releases, industry publications, industry meetings • Established Computer & Software Engineering Division as Member Interest Group

  40. History of Licencing in B.C. • Task Force • Consultation & Liaison/Involvement with other Bodies • Members in Industry • BC Technology Industries Association • IEEE Computer Society • SWEBOK • Texas State Board for Engineers

  41. History of Licencing in B.C. • 69 applications received • First software engineer registered September 2000 • Feedback prolific with mixed opinions • No intention of becoming registered versus • Finally someone is taking action to formally regulate standards of practice • Those seeking registration • Didn’t feel they would have qualified (or been interested in qualifying) before software engineering recognized; • Other disciplines who had moved into software engineering and wished professional recognition; • Computer Science/Math graduates needing professional recognition to differentiate their qualifications from others

  42. History of Licencing in B.C. • Evaluation of Applicants • Recognized: • Non-traditional, growing discipline • Continuing evolution of knowledge, technology and theory • Combination of academics, in-house training, professional development and experience make up qualification ‘whole’ • Lack of P.Eng. References in some, but surprisingly few, cases • Software Engineering Syllabus and first Experience Guidelines used as Guidelines • Interviews used as a tool in many cases • Details of evaluation written up for each applicant, to ensure consistency of evaluation

  43. APEGBC Criteria: Software Engineering Experience • Include, but extend general requirements for “satisfactory Engineering experience” • Basic software knowledge *assumed* • Requires Breadth and Depth • Should demonstrate increasing level of responsibility, usually multiple roles

  44. APEGBC Criteria: SW Eng’gExperience Capability Areas • Software requirements management • Elicitation, capture, tracing • Analysis, specification, validation • Software design and construction • Architecture: Views, patterns, components • Design methods, modeling, notations... • Implementation methods and tools

  45. APEGBC Criteria: Experience Capability Areas (cont.) • Software quality and testing • Defect metrics, assessment of quality,Conformance to requirements • Testing methods • V&V • Software assets management • Configuration Management • Change Control • Release Management

  46. APEGBC Criteria: Experience Capability Areas (cont.) • Software project management • Different lifecycle models, • Estimation and metrics • Risk management • Software process engineering • Process metrics • Software process improvement • Process engineering

  47. Criteria: Experience in optional capability areas • Safety-critical systems • Transportation, nuclear industry, biomedical, etc…. • Legal issues • Licencing, IP, etc... • Security: privacy, authentication, etc. • Telecommunications • Human factors, ergonomics …

  48. Exclusions: Not Software Engineering • Network design or management • System administration • Just use of software • Multimedia design • Pure technology investigation • Work lacking software elements • Work lacking engineering duties or responsibility

  49. Evaluating SW Engineering experience - pragmatics • 4 years is needed but may be insufficient! • Evaluate experience within applicant’s environment (terminology, standards) • Look for an awareness of standards technologies, and current best practices Above all, demonstrate application of principles, and understanding of many engineering trade-offs

  50. History of Licencing in B.C. • Computer & Software Engineering Division • Main focus is professional development • Professional Development Streams at Annual Conference for past two years (2000 and 2001) • Partner with other groups (INCOSE, IEEE) for this purpose