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Welcome to Human Dimensions of Change. By end of today you will:. Understand why the Human Dimensions of Change are important Have an overall framework for managing change Understand the difference between simple and complex change – and the different approaches needed.

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Presentation Transcript
slide1
Welcome to

Human Dimensions of Change

by end of today you will
By end of today you will:
  • Understand why the Human Dimensions of Change are important
  • Have an overall framework for managing change
  • Understand the difference between simple and complex change – and the different approaches needed
by end of today you will1
By end of today you will:
  • Have developed your understanding of how to work effectively with different personality types when leading change
  • Have a better understanding of why people resist change and ways to respond to resistance
  • Understand the most common reasons why change projects fail
by end of today you will not
By end of today you will not:
  • Be an expert in change management – can’t do that in a day
  • Have lots of easy answers –real life change is often complex and messy
  • Have all your learning needs met all the time – the group is too diverse for that.
course approach
Course Approach
  • Some theory - its important and helps give you confidence in your approach but….
  • Not theory for theory’s sake – has to help you with real life.
  • You bring the case studies – various exercises where you will look at how theory applies in your situation
aims of session one
Aims of Session One
  • To understand why the Human Dimensions of Change are important
  • To provide a framework for effective change management
  • To understand the difference between simple and complex change – and the different approaches needed
why is it important to manage the human dimensions of change
Why is it important to manage the human dimensions of change?
  • Change in Healthcare = people changing
  • Estimated 80% of change projects failure = failure to manage the people issues
  • Need to understand the ways people react to change
    • minimise the risks of failure
    • maximises skills and talents of the team
transition curve
Transition Curve

Progress through curve depends on:

  • Personality type
  • How much feel in control of change
  • How much other change is going on in life
  • Past experience
slide12
‘People responsible for planning and implementing change often forget that while the first task of change management is to understand the destination and how to get there, the first task of transition management is to convince people to leave home.’

William Bridges

why change how to generate dissatisfaction with status quo
Why change? – how to generate dissatisfaction with status quo
  • Patient Stories
  • Pathway Mapping
  • Use of data
  • Visiting other services…seeing what is possible
slide14
Remember

and

Hearts

Minds

change and learning
Change and learning
  • Panic Zone
  • people close up
  • they freeze
  • they don’t learn

Comfort Zone

No learning

No change

change and learning1

Panic

Zone

  • Discomfort Zone
        • uncertainty
        • learning

Comfort Zone

Change and learning
leaving the comfort zone
Leaving the comfort zone

‘To leave the comfort of the status quo, most individuals need to believe that the change is truly imperative and that there is a more attractive alternative’

Silversin/Kornacki

what to change to
What to Change To?

Effectiveness of a Decision

=

Quality of Decision

x

Commitment to Implement

No Involvement = No Commitment

what to change to1
What to Change To?
  • Ideally, involve those impacted in the change in developing a vision for the future:
    • Miracle Question
    • Value Stream Mapping
    • Option Development and Appraisal
    • Visits to other services
slide21
STEP THREE

PLAN TO GET BETWEEN PRESENT AND FUTURE

slide22
If, overnight, I was to remove all cats from the World - what would be different
  • Today?
  • In Six Months?
  • In Two Years?
complex adaptive systems
Complex Adaptive Systems
  • Collection of parts
  • Share an environment or space
  • Parts can act independently
  • Parts are interconnected
  • Action by any part affects the whole

Examples: immune system, insect colony, flock,stock market, just about any collection of humans

complex adaptive systems1
Complex Adaptive Systems

Deterministic Systems (Machine Metaphor)

the system is predictable, if you understand the rules you can predict the behaviour

Complex Systems (Environment Metaphor)

the sum is bigger than the parts – cannot predict behaviour of whole system by understanding the individual parts

complex adaptive systems2
Complex Adaptive Systems
  • Health and social care systems meet the classification of a complex adaptive system.
  • BUT….complex systems have systems within systems – and some of these might be simple
traditional mgt theory
Traditional Mgt Theory
  • Based on the metaphor of the organisation as a machine
  • Theories or rules apply to the system and result in a particular outcome
  • Mismatch between theories and practice
  • CAS Theory is an explanation of why
complex adaptive systems what do we know and how does it help us
Complex Adaptive SystemsWhat do we know and how does it help us?

We know:

Cannot predict effect of the change by the size of the input. Small inputs can result in large changes, large inputs can result in no change

Which means:

  • Promotes an experiential approach to change - try lots of different things on the margins (PDSA)
  • Allows us freedom from thinking we must work/plan it all out in advance.
complex adaptive systems what do we know and how does it help us1
Complex Adaptive SystemsWhat do we know and how does it help us?

We know:

Ability to predict in detail what will happen as a result of any given change in system rapidly deteriorates with time

Which means:

  • Don’t spend lots of time on detailed plans
  • Keep a close eye for unintended consequences
complex adaptive systems what do we know and how does it help us2
Complex Adaptive SystemsWhat do we know and how does it help us?

We know:

They have distributed control rather than one command centre

Which means:

  • Recognises can’t control everything by issuing orders from the top
  • Solutions to issues are distributed throughout the organisation and not confined to the top
  • Need to find ways to ‘attract’ the system to change rather than ‘directing’.
throwing a rock or a bird
Throwing a Rock or a Bird?

?

y = x2 – b

f = ma

“attractor”

Source: Paul Plsek, based on Richard Dawkins

complex adaptive systems what do we know and how does it help us3
Complex Adaptive SystemsWhat do we know and how does it help us?

We know:

Much of the power for creativity and innovation lies not with individuals but within relationships among parts of complex system

Which means:

  • place more emphasis on micro (people and interactions) than macro such as strategy
  • generative relationships - just putting different people in the same room can result in change
generative relationships
Generative Relationships

“Occur when interactions among parts of a complex system produce valuable, new, and unpredictable capabilities that are not inherent in any of the parts acting alone.”

David Lane and Robert Maxfield

complex adaptive systems what do we know and how does it help us4
Complex Adaptive SystemsWhat do we know and how does it help us?

We know:

They are history dependent - shaped and influenced by where they have been

Which means:

  • Explains why good practice in one area doesn’t always work in another
  • But doesn’t mean we have nothing to learn from elsewhere!
complex adaptive systems what do we know and how does it help us5
Complex Adaptive SystemsWhat do we know and how does it help us?

We know:

For a CAS to be sustainable there must be diversity – key to innovation and long term viability.

Which means:

  • Need to value our differences - our long term success depends on the differences
  • Must be prepared to ask the difficult questions - face the taboos
  • But must also manage the distress to keep it at productive levels.
complex adaptive systems what do we know and how does it help us6
Complex Adaptive SystemsWhat do we know and how does it help us?

We know:

A very complex system can be (is) guided by a few simple rules

Which means:

  • Build a good enough vision – provide general direction pointing, absolute boundaries and resources or permission rather than trying to plan everything in detail
  • Simple rules (often unstated) also maintain the system at status quo
  • Greatest leverage for innovation and change comes by modifying simple rules
good enough vision and minimum specifications
Good Enough Vision andMinimum Specifications
  • Hunterdon Medical Center (USA)
  • Need: Community health initiatives
  • Approach: Nursing committee
  • Observation: After 6 months, committee had not yet gotten out of the hospital!
good enough vision and minimum specifications1
Good Enough Vision andMinimum Specifications
  • Instead... Simple rules
    • A nurse can schedule up to half-day per week to work on community health initiative
    • Don’t do anything illegal
    • Remain within the project budget (all expenditures publicly posted)
summary effective approaches in complex situations
SummaryEffective Approaches in Complex Situations
  • Give the change problem back to those involved to generate solutions
  • Constructive open dialogues (seek first to understand, then to be understood!)
  • Experiment – small scale change – PDSA
  • Simple rules
  • BOTH/AND not EITHER/OR
  • Role of management is facilitating/enabling rather than directing
giving up the myths
Giving up the Myths
  • Myth of Autonomy – everything you do depends on others, you cannot do it alone
  • Myth of Control – can’t control everything, need to win hearts and minds
  • Myth of Omniscience – you don’t have all the answers as manager/leader

Often the toughest battle is not letting go of myths yourself but getting your staff to let go of them

applying the theory
Applying the Theory

Important to identify when an issue is complex and when it is simple – needs different techniques

But

Remember a change initiative may consist of both simple and complex parts

stacey agreement and certainty matrix
Stacey Agreement and Certainty Matrix

A method to select the appropriate management actions in a CAS

slide45

Stacey Matrix

Far from Agreement

Anarchy

Zone of

Complexity

Close to Agreement

Simple

Close to

Certainty

Far from

Certainty

simple zone
Simple Zone
  • Know where you want to get to, have clarity on steps need to take to get there and agreement that it needs to happen
  • Traditional management theory works well here – project management approach, which splits out tasks and assigns them to individuals to implement
  • Key role of management is ‘directing’ the process to ensure project plan implemented
complex zone
Complex Zone
  • Not clear if you make a change what the impact will be and no agreement whether to do it
  • Key to working in this area is peoples beliefs and ways of thinking
  • Focus on involving people in identifying issues and solutions, experimenting, constructive dialogue and simple rules
  • Key role of management is ‘enabling and facilitating’ rather than ‘directing’
slide48

Examples

Far from Agreement

Anarchy

Priority actions to improve treatment of depression

Implementation of advocacy services in line with mental health act

Close to Agreement

Close to

Certainty

Far from

Certainty

in the zone of complexity

Simple

In the zone of complexity…

Chaotic

Experiment

Simplerules

Constructivedialogue

Structure, processand pattern mapping

complexity where does your change fit
Complexity – Where does your change fit?

Pairs Exercise

  • Think about a change you are currently involved in and discuss how this fits into the Stacey Matrix
  • Remember, different aspects of the change may fit into different parts of the Matrix
  • Does the change management approach being used fit with the type of change – and if not what needs to change?
summary of key steps
Summary of Key Steps

Story so far…

Step One Make the case for change (Plan)

Step Two Vision for the future (Plan)

Step Three Plan to get from A to B and do it (Do).

But also need

Step Four Review and embed if working - do something else if not delivering benefits (Study/Act)

formula for change
Formula for Change

D x V x F > R

Dissatisfaction with current state

Organisational Resistance

First concrete steps towards the future

Vision for the Future

Beckhard & Gleicher

in this session we ve
In this session we’ve…
  • Looked at why the Human Dimensions of Change are important
  • Provided a framework for effective change management
  • Looked at the difference between simple and complex change
  • Given you a tool for working out what type of change you are facing and looked at the different approaches needed